Camps & Ghettos

  • Aschersleben

    Subcamp of: Buchenwald

    Location: Aschersleben, Germany

    Located in modern-day Saxony-Anhalt, it provided labor for Junkers (aircraft) and Motorenwerk (automotive production).

  • Augsburg

    Subcamp of: Dachau

    Location: Augsburg, Germany

    Messerschmitt production factory

  • Auschwitz
    (Auschwitz I)

    Location: Oświęcim, Poland

    This, the largest Nazi concentration and extermination camp, was established in June 1940. It was joined in 1941 by Auschwitz II (Birkenau) and in 1942 by Auschwitz III (Monowitz). Between 2.1 and 2.5 million died in the seven gas chambers of the complex.

  • Barth

    Subcamp of: Ravensbrück

    Location: Barth, Germany

    Located in modern-day Mecklenburg-Vorpommern near the Baltic.

  • Bergen-Belsen

    Location: Bergen, Germany

    Established in the spring of 1943 and initially intended as a transit camp, it soon was integrated into the concentration camp network. Its population swelled late in the war as inmates from other camps further east were moved into it--from around 15,000 in late 1944 to 41,250 in March 1945.

  • Birkenau
    (Auschwitz II, Brzezinka)

    Subcamp of: Auschwitz

    Location: Brzezinka, Poland

    An extension of Auschwitz consisting of crematoria, barracks, and workshops.

  • Birkenheim

    Location: Auerbach, Germany

    Part of Organisation Schmelt camps network, this was a labor camp located in Lower Silesia.

  • Blechhammer
    (Auschwitz IV)

    Subcamp of: Auschwitz

    Established in April 1942, this camp was mainly peopled by Jews from Upper Silesia.

  • Bobrek

    Subcamp of: Auschwitz

    Location: Bobrek, Poland

    This subcamp near Birkenau was built in May 1944 for skilled Jewish workers at an electronics factory.

  • Bochum

    Subcamp of: Buchenwald

    Location: Bochum, Germany

    Labor camp associated with an Eisen und Hüttenwerke AG steel plant.

  • Bolkenhain

    Subcamp of: Gross-Rosen

    Location: Bolków, Poland

    Upper Silesian camp that contained a textile mill.

  • Braunschweig

    Subcamp of: Neuengamme

    Location: Braunschweig, Germany

    Established in 1944 and peopled mainly by Jews from Lodz, the camp centered around automotive work.

  • Bremen-Neuenland
    (Bremen-Kriegsmarine)

    Subcamp of: Neuengamme

    Location: Bremen, Germany

    Originally a camp for prisoners of war, this was a subcamp of Neuengamme from August-November 1944. Prisoners were engaged in the construction of a U-boat bunker.

  • Buchenwald

    Location: Weimar, Germany

    Established in July 1937 near the city of Weimar for prisoners from central Germany, who were put to work making bricks at a nearby clay pit. Around 9000 were normally housed there, but the population reached around 48,000 by April 1945.

  • Buczacz Ghetto

    Location: Buczacz, Poland

    Ghetto from mid-1941 to June 1943 in eastern Galicia (now western Ukraine).

  • Budapest Ghetto

    Location: Budapest, Hungary

    Established in November 1944 in the old Jewish quarter near the main synagogue.

  • Budy

    Subcamp of: Auschwitz

    Location: Rajsko, Poland

    A subcamp for agricultural labor that employed female prisoners.

  • Budzyń
    (Budzyn, Budzin)

    Subcamp of: Majdanek

    Location: Kraśnik, Poland

    Labor camp which held nearly 3,000 Jews deported from cities in eastern Poland such as Kraśnik, Lublin, and Warsaw. It operated from autumn 1942 until May 1944, when the prisoners were evacuated to Majdanek.

  • Burgau

    Subcamp of: Dachau

    Location: Burgau, Germany

    Camp in operation from January-April 1945. Some 1,000 inmates were incarcerated there.

  • Börgermoor
    (Emslandlager I)

    Location: Börgermoor, Germany

    Initially created in 1933 as a camp for political prisoners and other criminals, later used to imprison resistance fighters and other military prisoners. In 1944 it became a subcamp of Neuengamme; in April 1945 most prisoners were sent on a forced death march to Aschendorfermoor.

  • Będzin Ghetto
    (Bendzin Ghetto, Bendin Ghetto)

    Location: Będzin, Poland

    Major ghetto established in May 1942 which held 30,000 Jews from Będzin and other nearby towns. Most were forced to work in military factories before being deported to Auschwitz for extermination.

  • Chemnitz

    Subcamp of: Flossenbürg

    Location: Chemnitz, Germany

    This women's camp was established in the spring of 1945 and mainly produced armaments.

  • Colmar

    Location: Colmar, France

    Located in German-occupied Alsace, deportations of Jews continued from this area until liberation in February 1945.

  • Częstochowa

    Location: Częstochowa, Poland

    Established in April 1941, it was largely liquidated in September-October 1942 and the survivors sent to the Treblinka concentration camp. A "Small Ghetto" of around 5000 remained of the strongest and best-educated, but these were dispersed or liquidated as well by July 1943.

  • Dachau

    Location: Dachau, Germany

    The first concentration camp opened in Germany (March 1933), located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory near the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 miles) northwest of Munich. In total, over 200,000 prisoners from more than 30 countries were housed in Dachau.

  • Danzig
    (Danzig-Burggraben)

    Subcamp of: Stutthof

    Location: Gdańsk, Poland

    Concentration camp located in the Kokoszki quarter of the city of Danzig.

  • Dora-Mittelbau
    (Nordhausen)

    Location: Nordhausen, Germany

    This camp produced V-2 rockets near Nordhausen in Thuringia from August 1943 to April 1945.

  • Drancy

    Location: Drancy, France

    The camp was opened after a roundup of in Paris Jews in August, 1941, in which over 4000 Jews were arrested. Drancy was under the control of the French police until July 3, 1943 when Nazi Germany took day-to-day control as part of the major stepping up at all facilities for the mass exterminations.

  • Ellrich
    (Ellrich-Juliushütte)

    Subcamp of: Dora-Mittelbau

    Location: Ellrich, Germany

    This camp for aircraft production was established May 2, 1944 at the town of Ellrich in the Juliushütte, an abandoned gypsum factory which had processed anhydrite rock mined from area tunnels. The conditions in this camp were especially disastrous and the treatment of the prisoners brutal.

  • Flossenbürg

    Location: Flossenbürg, Germany

    Concentration camp built in May 1938 by the SS in the Oberpfalz region of Bavaria. Between 1938 and liberation in April 1945, more than 96,000 prisoners passed through Flossenbürg. About 28,000 died there.

  • Fünfteichen

    Subcamp of: Gross-Rosen

    Location: Miłoszyce, Poland

    Labor camp in operation from October 1943 until January 1945.

  • Fürstengrube

    Subcamp of: Auschwitz

    Location: Wesoła, Poland

    This camp centered on coal mining and the excavation of a new mine at the Fürsten mine of the Fürstengrube GmbH company. 1,283 prisoners were present as of January 17, 1945.

  • Gabersdorf

    Subcamp of: Gross-Rosen

    Location: Gabersdorf, Austria

    This camp included a spinning factory.

  • Geislingen

    Subcamp of: Natzweiler-Struthof

    Location: Geislingen an der Steige, Germany

    Established in February 1944 for hundreds of Jewish women from Hungary who were originally destined for Auschwitz; they labored in military goods production at a former cutlery/cookware factory.

  • Gleiwitz
    (Gleiwitz I, II, III and IV)

    Subcamp of: Auschwitz

    Location: Gliwice, Poland

    Gleiwitz was an Auschwitz subcamp from July 1944 to January 1945, consisting of four locations working in mining and industrial companies and railroad repair.

  • Gogolin

    Location: Gogolin, Poland

    This was a forced labor camp located in Upper Silesia, established in 1940 for Jews from the surrounding area, and remained in operation for several years.

  • Gotenhafen

    Subcamp of: Stutthof

    Location: Gdynia, Poland

    An important German port and operations base after the fall of Poland in 1939. By late 1944 around 7000 forced laborers, POWS, and prisoners from Stutthof worked at one of the shipyards.

  • Grodno Ghetto

    Location: Hrodna, Poland

    Located in the Bialystok district of Poland, this ghetto was created in late 1941 and liquidated in early 1943.

  • Gross Masselwitz

    Location: Maślice Wielkie, Poland

    Originally established as a labor camp in 1939 for displaced Poles seeking work near Breslau, Silesia.

  • Gross-Rosen

    Location: Rogoźnica, Poland

    Established in Silesia in 1940 as a satellite camp to Sachsenhausen, it became an independent camp in 1941. Work centered on a huge stone quarry and many sub-camps were established (reaching 60 in 1944).

  • Gräben
    (Graeben)

    Subcamp of: Gross-Rosen

    Location: Strzegom, Poland

    In March 1943 around 450 young Polish girls were interned here; in mid-1944 this camp (strictly for women) was placed under the control of Gross-Rosen. Its inmates worked at a nearby linen mill.

  • Gurs

    Location: Gurs, France

    This camp in southwestern France near the Spanish border received German Jews from Baden in October 1942. The camp was largely emptied in August 1942 when its inmates were sent east to other camps; most were sent to Auschwitz.

  • Góra Wlodarz
    (Wolfsberg)

    Subcamp of: Gross-Rosen

    Location: Walim, Poland

    Established on the northeastern slope of Wolfsberg (Wlodarz) Mountain in May 1944 to provide labor (Jewish) for the construction of an underground Nazi command center.

  • Görlitz
    (Biesnitzer Grund)

    Subcamp of: Gross-Rosen

    Location: Görlitz, Germany

    Biesnitz, a village located southwest of Gorlitz, included a Jewish forced labor camp from May 1943 to January 1944. In August 1944 it was repopulated with Jews as a subcamp of Gross-Rosen and served as a brick works.

  • Haidari

    Location: Athínai, Greece

    Located in the Haidari suburb of Athens, it operated from September 1943 until September 1944 as the largest concentration camp in Greece.

  • Hatvan Ghetto

    Location: Hatvan, Hungary

    This ghetto was established in late May 1944 and lasted only a brief while before its inhabitants were transported to death camps in mid-June.

  • Herzogenburg

    Location: Herzogenburg, Austria

    Forced labor camp primarily populated by non-Jews, which held French, Greek, Polish, Lithuanian, and Bulgarian prisoners.

  • Hirschberg
    (Jelenia Gora)

    Subcamp of: Gross-Rosen

    Location: Jelenia Góra, Poland

    This Jewish labor camp was founded in 1942; in March 1944 it became one of the subcamps of Gross-Rosen. It contained mostly Jewish men from throughout Europe, who worked in the chemical department of a rayon plant.

  • Janina

    Location: Libiaż, Poland

    This camp, located around 11 miles from Auschwitz, was a coal mining operation. Initially worked by British POWS, they were replaced by Jews from Auschwitz in September 1943.

  • Kamenz

    Subcamp of: Gross-Rosen

    Location: Kamenz, Germany

    Automotive works located in Herrental, Saxony from 1944 to 1945.

  • Kamienna Góra
    (Landeshut)

    Subcamp of: Gross-Rosen

    Location: Kamienna Góra, Poland

    This Gross-Rosen subcamp was opened in July 1944 to provide labor for the roller and ball bearing manufacturing works that had been moved from Schweinfurt.

  • Karwin
    (Karviná)

    Location: Karviná, Czech Republic

    Currently a city in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic, on the Olza River. It was annexed by Poland in October 1938 and was administered by Germany as part of occupied Poland during World War II.

  • Kaunas Ghetto
    (Kovno Ghetto)

    Location: Kaunas, Lithuania

    Created in the summer of 1941 for Lithuanian Jews of the Kaunas area. In the summer of 1943 it was converted into the Kovno concentration camp, which the Germans largely evacuated in July 1944.

  • Kielce Ghetto

    Location: Kielce, Poland

    Established on March 31, 1941 for area Jews, this ghetto was largely liquidated in August 1942 when 20,000-21,000 inhabitants were sent to the extermination camp at Treblinka.

  • Kisvárda Ghetto

    Location: Kisvárda, Hungary

    The ghettoization of the Jews in Kisvarda began on April 8, 1944 with the transportation of the first group from the countryside. The Jews of Kisvarda proper who lived outside the ghetto were moved into it between April 15 and April 30. A total of 7,000 Jews were squeezed into the small ghetto.

  • Klettendorf
    (Klecina)

    Location: Klecin, Poland

    This forced labor camp stood in Breslau (now Wroclaw), Silesia and was first mentioned in August 1940. Various companies in the region used its inmates in various industries (steel, brick, carpentry, furniture, wool) and on Autobahn projects. The camp closed by July 1944.

  • Krakow Ghetto
    (Cracow)

    Location: Kraków, Poland

    This ghetto was established in March 1941 and liquidated in March 1943.

  • Kutno Ghetto

    Location: Kutno, Poland

    Located in the province of Lodz in central Poland. In June 1940 area Jews were transferred to a ghetto on the site of the destroyed Konstancja sugar refinery. Close to 7,000 persons were crowded into this small area.

  • L'viv Ghetto
    (Lemberg Ghetto, Lwów Ghetto)

    Location: L'viv, Ukraine

    Established in early November 1941. In March 1942 the Germans began deporting Jews from the ghetto to the Belzec extermination camp or the nearby Janowska forced-labor camp. The Germans destroyed the ghetto in June 1943.

  • Landsberg
    (Kaufering)

    Subcamp of: Dachau

    Location: Landsberg am Lech, Germany

    This subcamp did not receive Jews until the winter of 1944-45.

  • Le Vernet

    Location: Le Vernet, France

    Originally a French military camp and depot, in 1942 it became a transit camp for detained Jews. In June 1944 the last internees were evacuated and deported to the Dachau concentration camp in the "Ghost Train."

  • Leipzig

    Subcamp of: Buchenwald

    Location: Leipzig, Germany

    Located in an industrial suburb of Leipzig; many political prisoners held there.

  • Les Avants

    Location: Montreux, Switzerland

    Internment camp for political refugees seeking asylum, maintained by the Swiss government.

  • Les Milles

    Location: Les Milles, France

    Between 1941 and 1942 Le Camp des Milles was used as a transit camp for Jews, mainly men. About 2,000 of the inmates were shipped off to the Drancy internment camp on the way to Auschwitz.

  • Linz

    Subcamp of: Mauthausen

    Location: Linz, Austria

    Prisoners at camps at this location were engaged in the production of aircraft and anti-aircraft weaponry.

  • Lippstadt

    Subcamp of: Buchenwald

    Location: Lippstadt, Germany

    The Buchenwald sub-camp at Lippstadt held women, predominantly Hungarian Jews, who had been deported from Auschwitz when the sub-camp opened in the summer of 1944. The women were forced to work in the armaments industry as part of the SS Kommando Lippstadt I.

  • Lódź Ghetto
    (Litzmannstadt Ghetto)

    Location: Lódź, Poland

    Created on May 1, 1940 to intern the 164,000 original Jewish inhabitants of Łódź, most of whom were killed at Chelmno or sent to labor camps. During the war, some 43,000 people died there from starvation and disease. When the Russian army occupied Łódź in January 1945, only 877 Jews remained.

  • Magdeburg

    Subcamp of: Buchenwald

    Location: Magdeburg, Germany

    The capital city of the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, it lies on the Elbe River.

  • Majdanek
    (Konzentrationslager Lublin)

    Location: Lublin, Poland

    This camp in the Polish city of Lubin operated from 1941 to 1944. It contained Jewish prisoners from Slovakia, the Czech lands, Austria, Germany, France and Holland. From mid-1942 until mid-1943 most of the Jews sent to the camp were from the Lublin region and the ghettos of Warsaw and Bialystok.

  • Malchow

    Subcamp of: Ravensbrück

    Location: Malchow, Germany

    Opened in 1943, Malchow consisted of ten barracks, each meant for 100 women. But by 1945 the camp population had grown to 5000 women.

  • Markstadt
    (Laskowitz)

    Subcamp of: Gross-Rosen

    Location: Jelcz-Laskowice, Poland

    Established in 1941, this labor camp held up to 3000 inmates.

  • Mauthausen
    (Mauthausen-Gusen)

    Location: Mauthausen, Austria

    Opened in August 1938 to provide labor for a granite quarry, in January 1941 it became a grade III camp for "Incorrigible Political Enemies of the Reich."

  • Międzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto

    Location: Międzyrzec Podlaski, Poland

    The ghetto in this town ws established in late 1939 and held up to 20,000 Jewish prisoners. It was liquidated on July 17, 1943 when the last 160-200 residents were shot.

  • Monowitz
    (Buna, Auschwitz III)

    Subcamp of: Auschwitz

    Location: Oświęcim, Poland

    Camp established in 1942 for the production of synthetic rubber.

  • Mukachevo Ghetto
    (Munkács Ghetto)

    Location: Mukachevo, Czechoslovakia

    Ghetto established in April 1944 for the purpose of preparing the city's Jewish population for deportation. Most were deported to Auschwitz.

  • Mátészalka Ghetto

    Location: Mátészalka, Hungary

    This ghetto was set up in the Jewish quarter of the city and and held around 18,000 Jews, from the locality and neighboring communities in northern Mátramaros and Szatmátr counties.

  • Mühldorf

    Subcamp of: Dachau

    Location: Mühldorf am Inn, Germany

    Subcamp in operation from July 1944 to April or May 1945. Prisoners were engaged in the construction of an underground aircraft factory.

  • Natzweiler-Struthof

    Location: Natzwiller, France

    Operational from May 1941 to September 1944, Natzweiler-Struthof was a German concentration and extermination camp located in the Vosges Mountains close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller, near the city of Strasbourg. It was the only Nazi concentration camp established on French territory.

  • Neustadt

    Location: Wejherowo, Poland

    Forced labor camp for non-Jewish deportees, located on the Black Sea in West Prussia.

  • Neustadt-Glewe

    Subcamp of: Ravensbrück

    Location: Neustadt-Glewe, Germany

    Subcamp in operation from September 1944 to May 1945. The prisoners, mostly women, eventually numbered approximately 5,000. Work focused on aircraft parts production.

  • Noé

    Location: Noé, France

    Located 25 miles south of Toulouse.

  • Ohrdruf
    (Ohrdruf-Nord)

    Subcamp of: Buchenwald

    Location: Weimar, Germany

    This Buchenwald subcamp was located 32 miles southwest of the main camp. It was established in June of 1944, when 1000 men were sent to work digging tunnels into the nearby hills.

  • Oradea Ghetto
    (Grosswardein Ghetto)

    Location: Oradea, Romania

    Established in the first week of May 1944, this ghetto became the second-largest in Hungary (within the borders established in 1940) but lasted only a month before its inhabitants were transported to the extermination camp at Auschwitz.

  • Pithiviers

    Location: Pithiviers, France

    Located near Orléans in the Loiret region of France.

  • Plaszow
    (Kraków-Plaszów)

    Subcamp of: Majdanek

    Location: Kraków, Poland

    This slave labor camp near Kraków was headed by Amon Goeth, a psychopathic killer. Of some 150,000 Jews who passed through its gates, about 80,000 perished.

  • Posen
    (Poznan, Fort VII)

    Location: Poznań, Poland

    Originally build as a Prussian fort on the outskirts of Posen (Poznan), this compound was the first on Polish soil to be designated as a concentration camp following the fall of Poland in September 1939.

  • Pravieniskes

    Location: Pravieniškės, Lithuania

    The prison in this town was founded in 1863 by the Tsarist regime following a Lituanian uprising. It became a Nazi concentration camp before becoming a Soviet labor camp.

  • Przekopana

    Subcamp of: Przemyśl Ghetto

    Location: Przemyśl, Poland

    Forced labor camp which was created either inside or nearby the Przemyśl Ghetto, most likely in 1943.

  • Przemyśl Ghetto

    Location: Przemyśl, Poland

    Created in the autumn of 1941 and liquidated in February 1944.

  • Pustkow
    (Heidelager)

    Location: Pustkow, Poland

    The first prisoners arrived in 1940, mostly Polish Jews. In 1941 the German forces built a second camp for Russian prisoners of war, and in 1942 built a third camp for Polish workers. In early August 1944 the three camps were totally evacuated and destroyed, with the survivors moved to other camps.

  • Ravensbrück

    Location: Ravensbrück, Germany

    Concentration camp for female prisoners. By 1944, Ravensbrück and its 34 subcamps had a prisoner population of more than 80,000. Tens of thousands perished there from malnutrition, disease, shootings, phenol injections to the heart, and medical experiments. Six thousand died in its gas chambers.

  • Retzow

    Subcamp of: Ravensbrück

    Location: Retzow, Germany

    This sub-camp held over 1000 prisoners.

  • Riesenburg
    (Prabuty)

    Location: Prabuty, Poland

    This town, known as Prabuty in Polish, was called Riesenburg. It is situated in northern Poland, about forty miles south of the Gulf of Danzig.

  • Rivesaltes

    Location: Rivesaltes, France

    In 1942, under German pressure, the camp became a "Centre national de rassemblement des Israélites" - a "sorting centre" for Jews who were then sent on to the death camps such as Auschwitz, via Drancy. Two thousand five hundred and fifty one Jews are recorded as having been deported from Rivesaltes.

  • Royallieu
    (Compiègne-Royallieu)

    Location: Compiègne, France

    This detention camp operated from June 1941 to August 1944 and was located in the French commune of Compiègne. Prisoners included French Communists, Resistance fighters, and Soviet citizens as well as Jews.

  • Roznów

    Location: Roznów, Poland

    This work camp was located in southeastern Poland.

  • Rzeszów

    Location: Rzeszów, Poland

    Slave labor camp serving an airplane engine factory in the nearby village of Lysia Gora. On the eve of the German occupation, there were some 14,000 Jews in Rzeszów, the vast majority of whom did not survive.

  • Sachsenhausen
    (Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg)

    Location: Oranienburg, Germany

    Concentration camp opened in 1936. Prisoners were employed in various branches of armament manufacture, especially airplane and tank engines. Some 200,000 prisoners passed through the camp. The exact number of those who perished is unknown.

  • Sakrau
    (Zakrzów)

    Location: Zakrzów, Poland

    This labor camp was located in Zakrzów (German: Sakrau) near Wrocław, Oleśnica county, Poland.

  • Saloniki Ghetto
    (Salonika)

    Location: Thessaloníki, Greece

    Greek Jews were forced into ghettos by February 1943. By August of the same year, 46,000 Jews of Saloniki had been deported to Auschwitz.

  • Septfonds

    Location: Septfonds, France

    This camp in southwestern France was a collecting point for many Jews who were later sent east to death camps such as Auschwitz.

  • Siauliai
    (Shaulyai, Shyaulyay)

    Location: Šiauliai, Lithuania

    Following the German occupation of this Lithuanian city in June 1941 (which was one-quarter Jewish in 1939), 1000 Jews were shot within the first weeks, after which two ghetto areas were established (in the Kaukas and Traku areas). Only 500 area Jews survived until liberation in 1944.

  • Sighet Ghetto

    Location: Sighetu Marmaţiei, Romania

    Sighet’s Jews were ordered to enter a ghetto in April and early May of 1944, with its population soon reaching almost 13,000 when rural Jews were added. The ghetto was liquidated when the Jews were deported to Auschwitz in four transports between May 16 and 22, 1944.

  • Skarżysko-Kamienna

    Location: Skarżysko-Kamienna, Poland

    This forced labor camp produced munitions.

  • Sosnowiec Ghetto

    Subcamp of: Auschwitz

    Location: Sosnowiec, Poland

    This ghetto was formed in October 1942 and liquidated in August 1943, when most of the residents were sent to Auschwitz. The remaining Jews were placed in a work camp in the area of the former ghetto; the labor camp was liquidated in January 1944.

  • Starachowice Ghetto

    Location: Starachowice, Poland

    This ghetto was created in February 1941 that also took in Jews from Plock and Lodz. It was liquidated on October 27, 1941, when around 200 Jews were shot; the survivors were moved either to a nearby labor camp or to Treblinka.

  • Starachowice Labor Camp
    (Julag 1, Julag 2)

    Location: Starachowice, Poland

    This labor camp, created in the summer for survivors of the liquidated Starachowice Ghetto, came to be known as Julag I and housed around 5000 at a time. In the summer of 1943 the inmates were moved to a new location, known as Julag II; this final camp was liquidated in July 1944.

  • Stephanskirchen
    (Rosenheim)

    Subcamp of: Dachau

    Location: Stephanskirchen, Germany

    This subcamp was established in late 1944, where around 250 male inmates worked at a BMW aircraft engine factory.

  • Stutthof

    Location: Sztutowo, Poland

    Completed in September 1939, it was located in the small town of Sztutowo (German: Stutthof) in the former territory of the Free City of Danzig. Stutthof was the last camp liberated by the Allies. More than 85,000 victims died in the camp out of as many 110,000 who were sent there.

  • Szebnie

    Location: Szebnie, Poland

    Located near Jaslo, Krakow district, this work camp was liquidated on November 3, 1943 through mass executions of its inmates.

  • Székesfehérvár Ghetto

    Location: Székesfehérvár, Hungary

    A temporary ghetto was established in this Hungarian city in the spring of 1944.

  • Taucha

    Subcamp of: Buchenwald

    Location: Taucha, Germany

    Located around six miles east of Leipzig, this camp opened in late 1944 with inmates from Auschwitz. Prisoners worked at nearby factories.

  • Theresienstadt
    (Terezín)

    Subcamp of: Flossenbürg

    Location: Terezín, Czechoslovakia

    By November 24, 1941 the heart of Theresienstadt was turned into a walled ghetto. To the outside it was presented by the Nazis as a model Jewish settlement, but in reality it was a concentration camp. Theresienstadt was also used as a transit camp for European Jews en route to Auschwitz.

  • Trawniki

    Subcamp of: Majdanek

    Location: Trawniki, Poland

    This SS camp operated from July 1941 through July 1944. It initially held Soviet civilians and soldiers, after which it served as a training facility for police auxiliaries and as a forced-labor camp for Jews. After September 1943 it was a subcamp of Majdanek.

  • Treblinka
    (Treblinka I, Trenlinka II)

    Location: Treblinka, Poland

    The largest of the "Aktion Reinhard" camps, this extermination camp was created to murder the Jews of the Warsaw ghetto and other ghettos in central Poland. From July 1942 to October 1943, more than 800,000 Jews and several thousand Roma were killed there.

  • Türkheim

    Subcamp of: Dachau

    Location: Türkheim, Germany

    Camp in operation from October 1944 to April 1945. It held some 2,500 prisoners.

  • Vyhne

    Location: Vyhne, Czechoslovakia

    Labor camp created by the Slovakian government in 1942 on the site of a health resort.

  • Waldheim

    Subcamp of: Gross-Rosen

    Location: unknown,

    Located in Saxony, this "protective custody" unit maintained strict discipline. It existed only between March and May of 1933.

  • Warsaw Ghetto

    Location: Warsaw, Poland

    Established on October 16, 1940 with around 400,000 people (about 30% of the population of Warsaw but housed in an area covering only 2.4% of the city). Fighting broke out in January 1943 and ended on April 23; survivors were either killed or deported to concentration and death camps.

  • Warta

    Subcamp of: Częstochowa

    Location: Warta, Poland

    Forced-labor camp on the site of a pre-war textile factory that was converted into a munitions production facility.

  • Weidenberg

    Location: Weidenberg, Germany

    No information on this camp could be found.

  • Wieliczka

    Location: Wieliczka, Poland

    This subcamp of the Krakau-Plaszow concentration camp was created in the spring of 1944 and produced Heinkel aircraft. The camp was abandoned in September 1944.

  • Wilhelmshaven
    (Alter Bant Weg)

    Subcamp of: Neuengamme

    Location: Wilhelmshaven, Germany

    Alter Bant Weg (No. 1582 Wilhelmshaven) was a subcamp of the Neuengamme concentration camp. Two-thirds of the town's buildings were destroyed during bombing by the Allies of World War II.

  • Wüstegiersdorf

    Subcamp of: Gross-Rosen

    Location: Głuszyca, Poland

    Part of the Riese/Kaltwasser complex in the Polish Owl Mountains.