David P. Boder Interviews Joseph [last name unknown]; September 25, 1946; Wiesbaden, Germany

  • David Boder: [In English] Wiesbaden, September the 25th, 1946, in the community house of a Jewish community maintained by UNRRA but billeted in German homes. The interviewee is Mr. Joseph from Poland, who prefers not to give his full name.
  • David Boder: [In German] So, Mr. Joseph, come closer.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes.
  • David Boder: And can you tell me . . . can you speak Yiddish? Which is better?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes.
  • David Boder: [In Yiddish] Do you want to tell me where you were when the war started, eh . . . the last years before the war, when various events occurred that brought people out of their normal lives.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Before the war I lived in Poland.
  • David Boder: [In German] In which city?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: [In Yiddish] In Krynica, the spa town. In '39 I was drafted into the army.
  • David Boder: How old are you now?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Forty-five years old. Well. . .
  • David Boder: Were you a soldier before?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes. I was a soldier in Austria and in Poland from the time I was eighteen.
  • David Boder: Were you mobilized?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: I was mobilized. Due to my illness, I was let go for three month's vacation.
  • David Boder: How large was your family?
  • David Boder: [In German] I want you to tell me everything. You do not have to tell me their names. Were you taken into the Polish Army?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: [In Yiddish] Yes. Yes. Because of my illness . . .
  • David Boder: But, I have already asked you: How large was your family?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: My family consisted of a husband and wife.
  • David Boder: No children?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: No children.
  • David Boder: And because of your illness? What was your illness?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: My illness affected my kidneys. [unintelligible] the kidneys, so I was released for three months. I wanted to go home to my family. The front had already been broken through, so I went to Drohobych.
  • David Boder: Which front?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: The front between Germany and Poland. We went to Drohobych on foot. And we arrived in Drohobych. . .
  • David Boder: With your wife?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: My wife could no longer come, because the front had been broken . . . [break in wire]
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: . . . in Austria and in Poland from the time I was eighteen.
  • David Boder: Were you mobilized?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: I was mobilized. Due to my illness, I was let go for three month's vacation.
  • David Boder: How large was your family?
  • David Boder: [In German] I want you to tell me everything. You do not have to tell me their names. Were you taken into the Polish Army?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: [In Yiddish] Yes. Yes. Because of my illness . . .
  • David Boder: But, I have already asked you: How large was your family?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: My family consisted of a husband and wife.
  • David Boder: No children?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: No children.
  • David Boder: And because of your illness? What was your illness?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: My illness affected my kidneys. [unintelligible] the kidneys, so I was released for three months. I wanted to go home to my family. The front had already been broken through, so I went to Drohobych.
  • David Boder: Which front?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: The front between Germany and Poland. We went to Drohobych on foot. And we arrived in Drohobych. . .
  • David Boder: With your wife?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: My wife could no longer come, because the front had been broken. So she could not come to me anymore. I arrived in Drohobych. I had been in Drohobych two days when the Germans came in and found me in Drohobych. Then I saw that there was nothing else I could do, so I began the trip back home to Krynica. I went through Przemyśl. When I got to right before Przemyśl, two kilometers before Przemyśl, there was a bomb in the middle of the street, which had ripped up half a block. There were eighteen of us Jews passing by. The Germans got a hold of us and told us to dig a ditch for ourselves, two meters long, and with this earth cover what, what the bomb . . .
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: . . . blew up. For every shovel full of earth that we dug up we were beaten. It was raining heavily at that time, and we wanted to take off the coats that we were wearing, but we were not allowed. We were forced to keep our coats on in the biggest mud: "This is what you have to do!" We worked for three hours. At eight o'clock at night, when it was already very dark, the Commander, the Lieutenant, said: "Crew, halt! One, two, three." Cursing and beating and they disappeared in the direction of Lemberg. We didn't know what they meant, we were going toward Przemyśl and the direction of Lemberg was back toward Drohobych. We went toward Przemyśl. Then the shooting started. Luckily, it was dark. We lay down on the ground and no one was hit. We continued toward Przemyśl, all eighteen of us Jews. We entered Przemyśl. "Halt! Martial law! One cannot walk in the town at night." We asked that we be released, because we had just finished our work. They let us [go]. A Jew, who owned a restaurant near the train, took us home with him. Locked! So he knocked on the gate. A woman comes out and says, "Why did you come? Have mercy! Today six hundred and fifty Jews were killed. You came at the absolutely worst time." "Where?" we asked. "Who knows that Jews were killed? Who? What kind of Jews?" "They took both rabbis, all the lawyers, their daughters and their sons and their children and killed them." "Well, let us in." And we were admitted. And we spent the whole night hidden in the attic. In the morning two Gestapo men came and asked, "Where are the men who arrived last night? The woman stood outside and says, "There are no men here. No one came." He asked, "Aren't you lying?" She says, "No." Well, we continued, and we lay there until the evening before Yom Kippur. On Yom Kippur Eve, we went to the synagogue to pray. We prayed there and the next morning, the next morning, there came an order that the whole street has to be evacuated.
  • David Boder: Where?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: And . . . nothing. There was no arguing. Out into the street! This street was near the synagogue, a temple and near the synagogue.
  • David Boder: The Christians and the Jews had to evacuate?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: No. Just the Jews. Just the Jews. But we were afraid to go out, so we didn't go out and we stayed where we were. The evening before Sukkos, three o'clock in the morning, the Jews were standing at the baker's to buy bread. He was standing selling, when out of the third floor window I saw, when I was looking down, that they took benzene and began to pour it on the synagogue and they ignited it right away. One woman began to scream, "Jews, get up. It's burning." So he took out a revolver and shot it. They first set fire to the temple, that was the first thing. Second . . .
  • David Boder: A synagogue and a temple . . .
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: A synagogue and a temple.
  • David Boder: What is the difference?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: A temple, that is modern. A synagogue is more Orthodox. Three hours later, all three synagogues were burning.
  • David Boder: What was the third one?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: The third one was a Khassidic study house. All three synagogues were burning, and the order came that we had to go out into the street. So everyone gathered together, everyone who was able to—[even] small children—and they ran outside the city. And it burned a whole day; it burned and burned and burned until twelve o'clock at night, Sukkos Eve at night. At twelve o'clock it became quiet and at four o'clock in the morning the Red Army came in.
  • David Boder: The Red Army.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes. The Red Army came in and divided Przemyśl. Half of Przemyśl was red, the Red Army, and the other half of Przemyśl, across the [river?] was German.
  • David Boder: The Russians were not yet fighting with the Germans at that time.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: No, no. At that time they were not yet fighting each other; at that time they were still quite friendly. So we remained in Przemyśl under the Russians, and in Przemyśl I began to work. I wrote to my wife asking her to write to me about what was going on at home. My wife wrote that she wants to come to me, so I wrote her that she should come. She arrived at Sanok to the [unintelligible], but the Germans would not let her cross the water. They even told her to go into the water, but she could not go into the water, because she had a lot of bundles, so she waited until she would have the opportunity to cross the border on dry land. She waited there for two weeks, and they did not permit her across. She went home, and to this day I have not seen her. She died. She was shot in [Grybów?].
  • David Boder: Who told you this?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Those who were together [with her] in Auschwitz, in the camp, saw this.
  • David Boder: You weren't in Auschwitz.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: I was not in Auschwitz, no.
  • David Boder: Yes. The people here . . .
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: She was together with them. Those people managed to save themselves, and these were shot. They were shot this way: my wife, my brother. . .
  • David Boder: Whose brother?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: One of my brothers, and one of my brothers-in-law, and, um, two other brothers-in-law: three brothers-in-law were shot. One brother-in-law had six children, one had four and one had five children. There were other brothers-in-law from Grybów. I have no idea what happened to them. We worked in Przemyśl. We worked through the month of May. In May, a new Diaspora started. The Russians began coming into houses at night and began to take people out. No one knew where to, what. A day later a note was posted saying that there was a registration. [People could say] where they wanted to go: if they wanted to go home to the Germans or if they wanted to take out a passport. A lot of people registered for passports and a lot of people registered to go home. And those people, who registered requesting to go home, were taken and sent by transport to Russia.
  • David Boder: To Russia?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes.
  • David Boder: But they said that they wanted to go home to the Germans.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes, they were sent to Russia. Those who said that they wanted to go home to, to to the Germans, home! Not to the Germans, home to their wives.
  • David Boder: But the Germans were, after all, there.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes, but I did not go home to the Germans. I wanted to go home to my wife, to my brothers . . .[they] were sent to Russia.
  • David Boder: And you also signed up to go home.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes, because my wife could not come [to me].
  • David Boder: So you were exiled to Russian?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: . . . sent to Russia. As we were being transported to Russia—this is what was done to us: those who had wives and children, these were sent together, together. And those who were alone, like I was alone without a wife, were taken off and imprisoned in the jail in Tarnopol, and I was held in jail for four weeks and every day there were protocols: what one was, and when one was. And after all this questioning, we were exiled to Russia some for terms of three years, or five years or eight years, or ten year. We were in a camp . . .
  • David Boder: Sentenced.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Sentenced!
  • David Boder: Why?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Why, no one knew. At night they wrote a script, and one had to say what they wanted, and one received either eight years or ten years or three or five years. And that was that!
  • David Boder: Who? Five years. Who? Where were they sent?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: They were sentenced to the jail in Tarnopol. From there they were sent to Camp Sukhobezvodnoye and to other camps. Siberia. Various camps. We were there. . .
  • David Boder: Where were you sent? Where were you sent to?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: To Sukhobezvodnoye.
  • David Boder: [unintelligible]
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes. Sukhobezvodnoye. We worked in the camp there. We worked very hard. We found . . . a lot of people died of starvation. People could not withstand the cold. It was very cold.
  • David Boder: Where is the city where you were sent? Where is it?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: This is near the Volga, three hundred kilometers from the Volga.
  • David Boder: From [Nozber?]? From [Novgorod?]? What work did you do there?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: In the woods . . . [break in wire]
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: I worked in the forest cutting wood, chopping trees. Many of our brothers were . . . if a tree fell badly, if he [unintelligible] they were killed by the tree.
  • David Boder: [speaking over each other] Who organized the work? Who stood guard?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Guard? These were the Russians.
  • David Boder: Yes . . .
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: The Russians were the guards.
  • David Boder: Well, how did you live? What did you eat?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: We ate . . . we received six hundred grams of bread a day. If someone was a good worker and he had the strength to do more than the norm, he had the right to buy an additional three hundred grams of bread a day.
  • David Boder: To buy? They paid for the work?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: For the work we, yes we received [something]. It was very little but we did get something. Those who fulfilled the complete quota of work, but the quota was very difficult to fulfill, because it was very large. And it was very cold that winter, frost about 48 degrees [?] and we weren't very used to that climate, a very hard climate. It was very cold, and winter lasted very long. The winter lasted about seven or eight months.
  • David Boder: What kinds of clothes did you wear?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: We wore . . . they were. . . the clothes were cotton clothes, made of cotton.
  • David Boder: What kind of shoes?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: There were shoes. At that time there was a dearth and many still had boot liners . . . they had . . . and there weren't enough for everyone so they got shoes. On top of the shoes, people wore things made of straw that, in any case, let the water through. There were terrible snowstorms, a lot of them.
  • David Boder: And what did they make of wood? What kind of wood was cut?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: The wood was cut . . . tall trees were cut into two meters, meters, two meters . . . into meters, into four meters. There were also half meters. And this was brought into the camp. The train came into the woods there and took the wood away.
  • David Boder: Well . . .
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: But I was not used to the food that was there. We had very little. Food was very scarce and I got swollen feet. The doctor said that I needed better food. After that, my hands swelled up and I developed abscesses over my entire body. Six months later, a commission arrived from Moscow and saw . . . inspected the whole camp and divided the camp into three camps. Those who were very healthy were sent to the twenty-third camp. The average ones, those who had to rest, were sent to another camp to rest for three weeks, to the fifteenth camp, and those who were very weak [unintelligible] were sent to the ninth camp. There the work was easier and these people were no longer forced to work. It was an easy camp there.
  • David Boder: Where were you sent?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: I was sent to the ninth camp.
  • David Boder: For the weak?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: For the weak. Yes. There I worked at an easier job. I worked there until the liberation. Until the liberation was declared.
  • David Boder: Wait. What happened to your abscesses, to your illness? Were they healed?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: In the ninth camp they gave [us] certain medicine, that is they gave us medicine for this. They gave us yeast to drink. They gave us potatoes, onions.
  • David Boder: What did they give you to drink?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yeast, yeast.
  • David Boder: Yeast. [In English] Yeast!
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: [In Yiddish] Yes, yes.
  • David Boder: [In Polish] Yeast.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yeast, yeast.
  • David Boder: [In Yiddish] Well?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: There . . . there things were no longer so awful. One could stand it. We did not go to work so early.
  • David Boder: Were there only Jews in this camp?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Seventy percent were Jews there and thirty percent were mixed: some Russians, some gentiles, some Poles . . .mixed.
  • David Boder: Did you have Sundays off there?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: We had one day off every two weeks . . .
  • David Boder: Sunday or Saturday?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Sometimes it fell on Saturday and sometimes . . .
  • David Boder: [unintelligible] holidays . . .
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: [unintelligible] sometimes it came out.
  • David Boder: Aha. What do you say, were those who wanted to permitted to pray?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: In the first camp, in the seventh camp, praying was a bit disrupted.
  • David Boder: Disrupted?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Disrupted. Yes, they, they tore off the prayer shawls during their prayers. In the second camp, they, they ridiculed [them].
  • David Boder: What does that mean?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: They laughed at the prayers, so that the people were careful. Someone's prayer book was stolen. When we came in, our prayer books were confiscated. They took away our phylacteries. Among five or six hundred Jews there were only two pairs of phylacteries. Those who could prayed or [unintelligible].
  • David Boder: But there was no quorum of ten?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: No, we were not allowed to make a minyan. We were absolutely forbidden to form a minyan. That would be called organizing.
  • David Boder: Was this in the third camp or in the second camp?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: That is exactly how it was with praying in the third camp. If one needed to pray, he prayed alone, quietly. Then nothing was said.
  • David Boder: What did the Christians do? Did they have their icons there, their crosses?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: There were two priests there, but they were sent to a special camp. I have no idea which camp it was. They were not in the seventeenth, not in the fifteenth, not in the nineteenth. They were sent to an entirely separate camp.
  • David Boder: You were there until the liberation. What kind of liberation was it?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: There came an order that Poland had made a treaty with Russia and that all the Polish citizens were to be freed on. . .on . . on the amnesty that was announced. Everyone was freed.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: [In Polish] On the basis of amnesty . . .
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: [In Yiddish] . . . that means amnesty.
  • David Boder: What does that mean?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: We were permitted to return to Poland and we were [unintelligible] to Poland.
  • David Boder: But you were Polish citizens.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: So? But we could not go to Poland.
  • David Boder: Why? Who then?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: We were liberated and we traveled to find each other's relatives. We traveled and traveled and traveled. We spent whole months traveling. We became ill. We died from traveling. We became ill on the way.
  • David Boder: That means that you were permitted to travel.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes. They gave us tickets.
  • David Boder: Tickets.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: We were given money.
  • David Boder: Where did you travel?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: We traveled . . . At that time the army was founded, Anders Army, Sikorski-Anders Army . . .
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: . . . was founded at that time. Then all the Jews served in the Polish Army. Those who . . . for the most part they traveled to Buzuluk, to Totskoye. That is where the army was being formed; the Army was being founded. When we got there a new Diaspora started, a new, fresh Diaspora. There one first felt that one was a Jew.
  • David Boder: Hmm.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes. We were punished there. If one asked for a bit of soup, we caught a bone in the head and we got a good slap. Every step we took was taking a risk. It was not bearable. A lot of Jews served in the Polish Army and they could not take it, so they left the Polish Army. Then again, many went with the Army to Iran.
  • David Boder: Where?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: To Iran. They traveled to Iran.
  • David Boder: Ooh. Tell me, how was it by the Russians there? Did they beat [people]?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: By the Russians? No, I did not see [that]. I was not beaten.
  • David Boder: It was difficult to work, but they did not beat [people].
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: No, they did not beat [people]. But if one did not make one's quota, that which one had to make . . . then, of course, one became sick, because one could not get any food. Those people who could not meet their quota. [Among] those people who could not meet their quota . . . one was a lawyer, one was a doctor and one was a dental technician, who had to chop wood, but he could not make his quota, so he became weak.
  • David Boder: Where did you go to then?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: We went to Central Asia.
  • David Boder: You went into the Army?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: We went into the Army. The Army did not know what to do with us, because it didn't have any place, any place for so many. The Army fed us quite well, but a Jew was [despised?]. They couldn't stand to look at a Jew, and Jews had to run away from there, and everyone went to Central Asia, because there in Middle Asia it was warm and there it was very cold.
  • David Boder: Aha, yes . . .
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: So it turned out . . . then it turned out that we were already in winter there . . . [break in wire] . . . in Central Asia. [unintelligible] but there in Central Asia it was the same thing. Sikorski's Army was also there. One could also go into the Army there, but there were also a lot of mistakes when one went into the Army. On the day that the Army left for Iran, they told the Jews to take off their uniforms. They remained in Central Asia while they left. Many of us became ill. I came down with typhus. I was in the hospital for seven weeks.
  • David Boder: What is typhus? Typhus?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Typhus, yes.
  • David Boder: From lice.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Lice, yes. Typhus. Then I contracted dysentery. Then I got diarrhea. I was in the hospital for five months.
  • David Boder: What kind of hospital? Polish?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: It was good that it was a military hospital. The Russians . . . the Russians . . . the doctors were Russian and the staff was Russian, but it was a hospital, a military hospital, and it was named for the Army, Sikorski's Army. We were treated quite well there. We were fed quite well there. Those who survived, survived . . . and we left.
  • David Boder: Well, when did you get out?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: I got out of the hospital and I went to . . . at that time there opened relief agency; they were Polish agencies for support. It was support from the British. People began to receive support. Every refugee who arrived and showed that he had been in a camp, a Polish one, began to receive support. It was. . .
  • David Boder: It was a Russian camp.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes, a Russian camp.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: [In Russian] A certificate.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: [In Yiddish] He showed that he had been in a camp. He registered. There was an office in every city. One received soap, one received money, one received clothes, shoes, one received . . . they were given [unintelligible].
  • David Boder: [unintelligible]
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes. But those who went to work got the best things. Those who did not go to work had no right to receive [anything], unless they were sick and the doctor cured them. At that time one could get [something] only if he went to work. I . . . during the course of the day, I had to work even though I was unable to, because if I didn't . . . Without working I couldn't have survived, but I did thanks to what I received from these relief offices. Even sick, I had to work. I worked until . . . after working I once again got swollen feet. There was a doctor from Warsaw . . .
  • David Boder: Where did your feet become swollen? On the sides? Show me.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: At the bottom. He said that this was due to a weakened heart.
  • David Boder: Oh . . .
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: From the heart, from the heart. He said that I was not allowed to work anymore. He sent me to a convalescent home. There was a convalescent home in Gusar, Central Asia. There was also a relief agency there. Jews. People there did not work. It was figured that one would spend three or four weeks there resting. The food they served was quite good. Then a decree was issued (this was in '43 in the month of March) saying that all Polish people had to accept Russian passports . . . become Russian citizens. If not . . . many were arrested.
  • David Boder: [unintelligible]
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes. I didn't want to think too much about it. I was, by this time, afraid. I had spent fourteen months in jail, so I immediately got a passport, and as soon as I got the passport, I . . .
  • David Boder: To be a Russian citizen.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: To be a Russian citizen. I began to work, and I worked. It wasn't bad.
  • David Boder: [unintelligible] the Polish relief agencies?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: No. At that time all the relief agencies were disbanded. All the relief agencies were liquidated, and no more Polish relief agencies existed. Then we really had to go to work, and we went to work. Whatever one had the strength to do, but one had to take a passport. One could not exist without a passport. As soon as one got a passport . . . they took people and sent them to the front.
  • David Boder: What was that?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: That means . . . a front, that is called a job . . . a mobilization of . . .
  • David Boder: A mobilization to work.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: To work.
  • David Boder: And where did you work?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Me . . . various things. I was sent to [Astroyik?]. This is near Tashkent [unintelligible].
  • David Boder: Not to the front.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: No. Behind the front. All of this was behind. One person was sent [unintelligible] another was sent to [unintelligible] work. So everyone took passports and he began to work. Now we had the right to live in the city. We improved everything. We were there in '43, '44, '45 . . . until the end of the war. When the war ended, we once again heard news that people were traveling to Poland.
  • David Boder: With Russian passports?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: The Russian passports were taken back. They gave out a document, half in Polish, half in Russian. And at the border . . . we went home to Poland. . .at the border they took back the Russian document and the passport. They took everything away. All that remained was a small document written in Polish. We went home to Poland with transport and we arrived in Poland in the month of . . . July.
  • David Boder: '46?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: '46.
  • David Boder: So late?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes, yes. The last transport.
  • David Boder: July '46?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Yes, yes.
  • David Boder: July '46? That was four weeks ago.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Four weeks ago. Yes, yes.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: What is it today?
  • David Boder: What is it? September already.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: September . . . well.
  • David Boder: Two months.
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: Two months. When we arrived in Poland . . . we thought that we would be able to exist at home. Poland was, after all, our home. We had lived there for so many years . . . our fathers, our grandfathers. But we were told that we could not go out into the street.
  • David Boder: Who said that? Other Jews?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: The Jews who came to meet the train. Jews came out to meet the train said that we should not loiter in the street, because there had been some shooting today. At night a train went through going to Warsaw-Lublin, and four Jews were taken off. No one knew what had happened. In the morning it was discovered that they had been shot.
  • David Boder: In which city was it that you arrived when you came home?
  • Joseph [last name unknown]: [Mielec?]
  • David Boder: [In English] This concludes Spool 158 with the report of a Mr. Joseph, and we will continue Spool 159. Illinois Institute of Technology wire recording. Wiesbaden, September the 26th, 19— . . . eh, 25th, September the 25th, 1946. Illinois Institute of Technology wire recording.
  • Contributors to this text:
  • Transcription :
  • English Translation : Khane-Faygl Turtletaub