David P. Boder Interviews Marko Moskovitz; July 30, 1946; Paris, France

  • David Boder: [In English] This is Spool number 6, a young man, Marko Moskovitz, a pupil at the ORT. The record is being taken on July 30th, 1946.
  • David Boder: [In German] What do you say is your name?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Moskovitz, Marko.
  • David Boder: Moskovitz, Marko. And . . . and how long have you been in Paris?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Two weeks.
  • David Boder: From where did you come to Paris? [Words not clear.]
  • Marko Moskovitz: From Germany. From Germany I went to Italy. From Italy to Paris.
  • David Boder: From Germany to Italy.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: And from Italy to Paris.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: And where were you born, Marko?
  • Marko Moskovitz: In the Carpathians.
  • David Boder: In the Carpathians.
  • Marko Moskovitz: In Carpatho-Rus- . . . [Ruthenia?]
  • David Boder: And when did you come to Germany?
  • Marko Moskovitz: In Germany . . . since the deportation.
  • David Boder: Deported?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: In what year?
  • Marko Moskovitz: In thousand nine hundred and forty-two [1942] I was deported.
  • David Boder: You were deported. How old are you now?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Nineteen years.
  • David Boder: You are nineteen years old. So how old were you when you were deported?
  • Marko Moskovitz: I was seventeen years [old].
  • David Boder: You were with your family [?]?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: You were seventeen years old.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: All right. Now tell me, who were your parents? Who were your family, and all that?
  • Marko Moskovitz: My . . .
  • David Boder: Nu?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes. Hirsh was my father, and my mother Dwoira. I had five siblings.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: And all were deported. And I have remained alone.
  • David Boder: Aha. And now, what was your father's occupation?
  • Marko Moskovitz: An agricultural worker.
  • David Boder: He was an agricultural worker.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: In which town?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Solotvyna.
  • David Boder: Solotvyna.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: Was that Poland?
  • Marko Moskovitz: No. That was Czechoslovakia . . . in the '39th year.
  • David Boder: And then what did it become?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Then the Hungarians . . .
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: And now the Russians.
  • David Boder: Now the Russians are there.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: But the Hungarians had taken it.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: Tell me, what happened when the Hungarians took your place?
  • Marko Moskovitz: [They] entered . . . Two weeks before Pesach they entered.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: In the '39th year.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Then they began to deport the Jews. Not to deport, but to [make them] go to work.
  • David Boder: Aha. What does it mean, they were made to go to work? Tell me . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: And so, to wear . . .
  • David Boder: . . . everything the way it . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: . . . yellow bands.
  • David Boder: You have . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: They began to wear yellow bands. And my father had also . . .
  • David Boder: Had also . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes, also wore a yellow star.
  • David Boder: And you?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Not I [?].
  • David Boder: Why?
  • Marko Moskovitz: I was still . . . I was still young.
  • David Boder: You were still young.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: And the women?
  • Marko Moskovitz: The women, too.
  • David Boder: The women, too.
  • Marko Moskovitz: The women had remained.
  • David Boder: Aha.
  • Marko Moskovitz: And then they [word not clear].
  • David Boder: What does it mean, they had remained?
  • Marko Moskovitz: The women were not yet taken.
  • David Boder: Aha.
  • Marko Moskovitz: And then a ghetto was made.
  • David Boder: Yes. Tell please . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: They started to wear the stars.
  • David Boder: Aha. How did they make the ghetto?
  • Marko Moskovitz: In Solotvyna [Sighet Ghetto].
  • David Boder: Yes, but how was it done? Was it . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: It was announced that every person must report.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Marko Moskovitz: And then it was ordered that all Jews must go into one street.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: They went in. Then they were surrounded by Hungarian gendarmerie. The ghetto was surrrounded. We were four weeks in the ghetto. Then we were transported to Auschwitz.
  • David Boder: To Auschwitz?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: What for to Auschwitz?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Just so. All Jews to Auschwitz.
  • David Boder: Have you, too, been in Auschwitz?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: All right. Now tell me, how did people live in Auschwitz? What happened there?
  • Marko Moskovitz: The first day when we arrived I did not know . . . I was still young [word not clear] . . .
  • David Boder: Why [not]?
  • Marko Moskovitz: I was so mixed up in my head [confused].
  • David Boder: What is that?
  • Marko Moskovitz: For three days I did not know anything, whether night or day . . .
  • David Boder: Why did you not know?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Just so. There was such a smoke from the crematory that one could not know anything.
  • David Boder: When you arrived in Auschwitz?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes. Then it was said, 'Craftsmen, step forward.' So I reported as a carpenter. I stepped forward. Then my father said, 'Why did you step forward? Now you will leave and I will remain here alone.' I wanted to go back, but I could not go back any more.
  • David Boder: Aha. And where was the mother?
  • Marko Moskovitz: The mother was already . . . kaput.
  • David Boder: When?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Then, the same day.
  • David Boder: Wait a moment. You were taken to Auschwitz.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: Tell me the whole story.
  • Marko Moskovitz: We were taken out of the RR-cars. We were told women separately and children from . . . up to twelve, thirteen years, fifteen years should go with their mothers.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Marko Moskovitz: And the . . . the older ones who are able to work should go . . .
  • David Boder: [Word not clear.]
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes. Should go to the other side.
  • David Boder: And the mother?
  • Marko Moskovitz: And the mother was already separated, because she had my siblings, my brother of eight and my sister of eleven years.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Marko Moskovitz: They went with the mother.
  • David Boder: Aha.
  • Marko Moskovitz: And I with my father and another brother went to the other side.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Marko Moskovitz: We were all taken to labor. Then we came into a block. We were told, 'Craftsmen, step forward.' My father believed that I will remain in the lager Auschwitz.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Marko Moskovitz: So I stepped forward, [reported] that I am a carpenter.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Marko Moskovitz: [When] I stepped forward, I was taken to another block. And then I was transported to Upper Silesia, to Breslau.
  • David Boder: Yes. Nu, when have you last seen your mother?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Since we were taken out of the RR-cars, since then, I have not seen my mother.
  • David Boder: And you are certain that she was . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes. We saw all that, everything.
  • David Boder: What did you see?
  • Marko Moskovitz: How they were thrown in.
  • David Boder: Where?
  • Marko Moskovitz: In the crematory.
  • David Boder: But they were not thrown in alive.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Just so. They were . . . they were told . . . When they began to scream . . . and then we heard that they scream louder. Suddenly the gates of the gas chamber were opened.
  • David Boder: Hm.
  • Marko Moskovitz: [They] entered. We heard not one word more.
  • David Boder: They entered the gas chambers.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes. And then the sick who could not walk were instantly with the machines . . .
  • David Boder: What machines?
  • Marko Moskovitz: From the SS machines [autos? mobile gas chambers?] thrown in, tossed straight in the crematory.
  • David Boder: Alive?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: The sick.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: How can one . . . was the crematory so big that one could throw in live people?
  • Marko Moskovitz: It was . . . it was forty square kilometers.
  • David Boder: What?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Forty-kilometers square was the [word not clear].
  • David Boder: What . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: There was a forest.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Marko Moskovitz: A large forest.
  • David Boder: But . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: There was a . . . a forest, and in that forest there was a huge pit.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: And in that pit black pitch was always poured.
  • David Boder: What?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Such a black tar which . . . which is poured on streets.
  • David Boder: Yes, which . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: This was poured in.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: This was ignited, and this was burning day and night. And the people were being continuously thrown in.
  • David Boder: Oh. Thus the dead were . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: . . . burned.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes, yes.
  • David Boder: But not alive.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Dead. Often alive, who still had years, [who] could still live.
  • David Boder: Oh. Not in an oven?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Ach . . . the transports which . . . these were thrown in the oven who were at work. [Those who] were already Mussulmen [people emaciated to the bone], could not work any more, these were brought to Auschwitz, and these were thrown in the gas chamber and into the oven.
  • David Boder: Aha.
  • Marko Moskovitz: But the first transports could not go . . . so many . . . so many . . . There would arrive a transport of sixty thousand people. It was impossible in the oven, a small oven. It was . . .
  • David Boder: So they could not . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: They were always thrown into the pit.
  • David Boder: A pit?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: And what was being burned in the pit? [Footnote: The interviewer has apparently become confused if not perplexed by the story which was recorded the second day after his arrival. It is one of the early reports, his first face to face contact with eyewitnesses from Auschwitz.]
  • Marko Moskovitz: People were . . .
  • David Boder: Yes, but . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: Wood . . . wood was put in and tar.
  • David Boder: Wood and tar.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: What did you say before, a Mussulman?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes. These Mussulmen, who worked . . . were working in the lager.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: And they became thin people, just skin and bones.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Marko Moskovitz: The Germans called them Mussulmen.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: And they were taken to Auschwitz, and they were thrown in the oven.
  • David Boder: Hm.
  • Marko Moskovitz: But the transports were tossed into pits.
  • David Boder: So that was in Auschwitz.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: And so did you . . . And then when you departed . . . they ordered, 'Workers, step forward,' and you left . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes, I left.
  • David Boder: What did your father say?
  • Marko Moskovitz: The father believed that I will remain in this lager, in Auschwitz.
  • David Boder: Aha.
  • Marko Moskovitz: It was Birkenau. There in Birkenau [words not clear].
  • David Boder: Nu, then you left your father alone.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: And . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: With the brother. A brother, too, with the father.
  • David Boder: How old was the brother?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Thirteen years [old].
  • David Boder: Oh. So he could not be a worker.
  • David Boder: Since home he was used to . . . he . . . he was at work since May until August . . . [correction] until January . . .
  • David Boder: Hm.
  • Marko Moskovitz: . . . in the year '45[?]. He was transported from . . . He was in Buna, in Monowitz. It is in Poland, a large factory, so he [?] . . .
  • David Boder: Had he been taken away from the father?
  • David Boder: Yes . . . no, the brother was together with the father.
  • David Boder: And the father was in a factory?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes, with the brother. He was transported . . . evacuated. The Russians had arrived.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: They were sent to Gleiwitz.
  • David Boder: Hm.
  • Marko Moskovitz: In Gleiwitz. And in Gleiwitz there they were . . .
  • David Boder: Aha. The first lager you arrived at, where you lost your mother, which lager was that?
  • Marko Moskovitz: That is Birkenau.
  • David Boder: Birkenau.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes, Birkenau.
  • David Boder: And there your mother remained. With whom, with your sister?
  • Marko Moskovitz: With the sister and a little brother eight years old.
  • David Boder: Aha. They disappeared there.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: And then your father with your brother . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: The father with the brother left to work in a factory.
  • David Boder: To work in a factory.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: In what factory did they work?
  • Marko Moskovitz: In Buna.
  • David Boder: Buna.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Buna.
  • David Boder: And how long were they there?
  • Marko Moskovitz: They were . . . May . . .
  • David Boder: Yes. Until?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Until January. In January the evacuation began.
  • David Boder: Aha.
  • Marko Moskovitz: They walked as far as Gleiwitz I (One). In Gleiwitz I (One) . . . any more I don't know.
  • David Boder: Aha. How do you know where . . . where they had been? Did you write . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: There is here a cousin.
  • David Boder: Oh.
  • Marko Moskovitz: He was together with them.
  • David Boder: Oh. A cousin was together with you . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: No, he was together with my father.
  • David Boder: He was together . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: . . . with your father.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: And he told you that.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: Yes. Nu, and where did you work?
  • Marko Moskovitz: I was working in Upper Silesia.
  • David Boder: In Upper Silesia, yes. In what kind of factory did you work?
  • Marko Moskovitz: There was a station.
  • David Boder: What . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: Well, a station. We were making a station.
  • David Boder: A railway . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: . . . station?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: You were building.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: You are a carpenter.
  • Marko Moskovitz: No. Who cared [?]? The carpenters and the jewelers [?], they were all taken to carry cement and . . .
  • David Boder: That were . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: . . . other work.
  • David Boder: Yes. Nu, and how were you treated there in the lager?
  • Marko Moskovitz: [We] were given a bread for eight people.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: The bread weighed a kilo [and] forty [deka].
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: And in the morning black coffee, and for dinner clear water [soup?], and in the evening [words not clear].
  • David Boder: Aha. Nu, and when someone was sick?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Nu, that is of no use. When someone is sick if it healed by itself, good, if not, then one goes to Auschwitz.
  • David Boder: And did that happen?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Ach . . . it happened to three quarters of our lager. One quarter remained.
  • David Boder: And the others were taken -- where to? To Auschwitz?
  • David Boder: Yes. Everything to Auschwitz.
  • David Boder: And Auschwitz was what?
  • Marko Moskovitz: In Auschwitz, there they were burned.
  • David Boder: [Pause.] And the . . . Thus you worked for how long [?]?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes. Worked until January.
  • David Boder: January.
  • Marko Moskovitz: January, yes.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Marko Moskovitz: In January we were evacuated as far as Prague.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: From Prague to Grossrosen. Everything on foot. Then we were packed in RR-cars, a hundred and twenty people in each, for Flossenburg. In Flossenburg I was two months. Then we were [sent] to Offenburg [?]. From Offenburg . . . from Offenburg I was . . . we were . . . we were loaded in RR-cars, because the Americans were already arriving. We were . . . en route we were shot at. Very few people remained alive. And we got out of the RR-cars. We ran into a forest, the Black Forest, and there we were liberated by the French.
  • David Boder: By the French?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: Nu, and then where did you go from there?
  • Marko Moskovitz: From there . . . I was . . . I could walk. I was very weak. I had thirty-two kilos. I could not walk.
  • David Boder: What do you mean you had thirty-two kilos?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Just so. I was so . . .
  • David Boder: You weighed . . .
  • David Boder: . . . thirty-two kilos.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: How tall are you?
  • Marko Moskovitz: One meter, seventy [centimeters].
  • David Boder: You are one meter, seventy.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: And you weighed thirty-two kilos.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Thirty-two kilos, yes.
  • David Boder: Nu?
  • Marko Moskovitz: And I was three months . . .
  • David Boder: Where?
  • Marko Moskovitz: . . . there in that . . . the name of it is Immendingen, a village , a German village in Bavaria.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: And then . . .
  • David Boder: Who fed you there?
  • Marko Moskovitz: We ourselves. And then . . .
  • David Boder: What does it mean, 'we ourselves'? Who else was with you?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Others. There were Russians. There were Poles, various nationalities.
  • David Boder: And how did you get food?
  • Marko Moskovitz: So. We got into . . . the Germans had all fled. Then we got in the houses. We found food.
  • David Boder: Aha. The Germans had run away?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: Yes. Nu?
  • Marko Moskovitz: And when we went to Regensburg. From Regensburg I went back to Munich. In Munich I remained till the end. Then I went to Italy.
  • David Boder: How did you go from Munich to Italy? Were you allowed to go?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes. There were provided transports.
  • David Boder: Who provided you?
  • Marko Moskovitz: The Americans permitted us.
  • David Boder: To go where, to Italy?
  • Marko Moskovitz: To Italy, yes.
  • David Boder: What? They let you go to Italy.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: What did you say, you wanted to do in Italy?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Because I was told that I have no one at home. Then . . . what shall I go home for? So I came to Italy.
  • David Boder: Oh. Otherwise you would have gone home?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: Aha.
  • Marko Moskovitz: I have no one at home.
  • David Boder: How did you get to Italy? Did you take the train?
  • Marko Moskovitz: We got a transport, a whole transport.
  • David Boder: Were there many . . . many Jews?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes. We were two hundred people.
  • David Boder: And where did the others go?
  • Marko Moskovitz: The others . . . some went . . . many found work and remained in Italy. Some went to France. Many have friends in America.
  • David Boder: Aha.
  • Marko Moskovitz: They received affidavits . . .
  • David Boder: [Words not clear.]
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: Tell me, where were you in Italy?
  • Marko Moskovitz: In Turin.
  • David Boder: In Turin. And where did you eat . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: In an UNRRA camp.
  • David Boder: The UNRRA . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: They supported you?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes, [they gave us] to eat,, to sleep.
  • David Boder: Hm. And then . . . Why did you come to France?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Why? I am still young. I want to learn a trade.
  • David Boder: Aha. Could you not learn that in Italy?
  • Marko Moskovitz: No. In Italy there are no trade schools [for DPs].
  • David Boder: Aha. And who told you to go to France?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Others came, so I came too.
  • David Boder: Oh. How did you come to France, by train?
  • Marko Moskovitz: No.
  • David Boder: How then?
  • Marko Moskovitz: [Crossed] the Alps.
  • David Boder: You crossed the Alps?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: Why?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Why? It had to be so. I had no money for the train, so I had to go that way [?].
  • David Boder: You crossed the Alps on foot?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: How long did it take?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Two days and a night.
  • David Boder: To cross the Alps.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: Did the French let you in?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Then, when we came into a French village, we ate, slept. We went to a Committee and asked for money. So we embarked and came to Paris.
  • David Boder: Did you have an entry visa?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: Oh. Who issued it to you?
  • Marko Moskovitz: We came so . . .
  • David Boder: What?
  • Marko Moskovitz: No visa.
  • David Boder: [Chuckle.] You had no visa. How did the French let you in?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Good. We said . . . we told them we are deportees and we have no . . . no one at home. Where should we go? We want to go to Paris to work.
  • David Boder: Aha.
  • Marko Moskovitz: To learn a trade.
  • David Boder: All right. So then you came to Paris.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: Where did you find the people?
  • Marko Moskovitz: I found one man, a Jew. He was in the train. He came with me. So I asked him where I can stay for a few days until I get to know Paris. So he said, 'I will take you home for two, three days.'
  • David Boder: Here?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes, in Paris.
  • David Boder: And?
  • Marko Moskovitz: And after staying there two, three days I left for [words not clear]. From [word not clear] I was sent to [word not clear].
  • David Boder: Where?
  • Marko Moskovitz: [Words not clear.]
  • David Boder: Where is that?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Near Paris.
  • David Boder: Aha. Nu? And then?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Then . . .
  • David Boder: Louder.
  • Marko Moskovitz: There I was given to eat, to sleep. I told them I want to go and learn a trade, so I came here.
  • David Boder: Aha. and where did you find your cousin?
  • Marko Moskovitz: The cousin? I came together with him from Italy.
  • David Boder: But where did you find him?
  • Marko Moskovitz: We were yet together in Germany. After the liberation we found each other.
  • David Boder: Oh. After the liberation . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: . . . you found each other.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: . . . Tell me, how did you find your cousin?
  • Marko Moskovitz: I came to Regensburg.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: I was told that he is in Munich. I went to Munich and found him in the armory.
  • David Boder: In the armory.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: And is he from your town?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: Had he been together with you . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: No. With my father.
  • David Boder: How did he . . . He was with your father? How . . . how . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: He . . . so . . .
  • David Boder: Is he the young man who was here with you?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes, yes.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: He was together with the father. And his father was together with me in Flossenburg.
  • David Boder: Aha. Your father was with him together . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes. And my . . .
  • David Boder: And his father was with you in Flossenburg.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Flossenburg.
  • David Boder: Aha. Nu, do you have relatives here in Paris?
  • Marko Moskovitz: No.
  • David Boder: You have none.
  • Marko Moskovitz: In America I have, but I don't know the address.
  • David Boder: In what city?
  • Marko Moskovitz: I don't know. I know his name and . . . and . . . and . . . his name.
  • David Boder: Did you inquire in the HIAS [Hebrew immigrant Aid Society]?
  • Marko Moskovitz: How . . . To whom?
  • David Boder: There is an American committee here in Paris. Did you inquire there?
  • Marko Moskovitz: No, no. Not yet.
  • David Boder: Well, look them up and talk to them.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Because I know before the war we received . . . every two weeks we received mail. But when we were deported to Auschwitz all the documents were burned, and now I don't know the address.
  • David Boder: Yes, but . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: I was then too young. I didn't know . . .
  • David Boder: Yes, but don't you know in which city he lives?
  • Marko Moskovitz: No.
  • David Boder: Well, do you know that there is a committee, an American committee, here which searches for relatives?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Where, here in Paris?
  • David Boder: Here in Paris. Yes. A very fine committee.
  • Marko Moskovitz: I don't know the address.
  • David Boder: It is called HIAS.
  • Marko Moskovitz: The HIAS.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Marko Moskovitz: And how long will it take? How long will it take?
  • David Boder: Oh, it may take three months, and it may take six months, but they find them usually. This committee is here in Paris. You ask Mr. Bramson. He will get in touch with them. You give them the name and they . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: My uncle's name.
  • David Boder: . . . put it in the papers . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: and one is usually found. Do you understand?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: And otherwise where do you intend to remain? Where do you want to go when you have learned a trade?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Perhaps if I find my . . . my uncle in America, perhaps I will go there.
  • David Boder: And if not?
  • Marko Moskovitz: And if not, I don't have anywhere to go. I must remain in Paris.
  • David Boder: [An attempt to give a modified TAT test follows.] All right. I have here a few pictures. I would like you to tell me what is the meaning of these pictures. For instance, what is this?
  • Marko Moskovitz: This is a picture.
  • David Boder: Yes, but . . . Describe it. [Pause.] What is it? What do you think it is?
  • Marko Moskovitz: This is a woman.
  • David Boder: Well, yes, but . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: A working woman.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: And she is wrapped in thoughts.
  • David Boder: She is wrapped in thoughts.
  • Marko Moskovitz: Yes.
  • David Boder: What do you think she is thinking about?
  • Marko Moskovitz: She thinks of her husband or of her children.
  • David Boder: Hm. All right. What is this?
  • Marko Moskovitz: This happened in a lager.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: One brother [?] would say to the other, 'Oh, I am sick now, but perhaps you will survive. Tell my father then that I died.' This would happen in a lager.
  • David Boder: What is this? [Aside] 9GF. What is this? [Given by mistake.]
  • Marko Moskovitz: This is two ladies.
  • David Boder: Yes? Tell me what is happening here.
  • Marko Moskovitz: They look like two sisters.
  • David Boder: Yes? What had happened?
  • Marko Moskovitz: They have, perhaps, after the war [words not clear] . . . so one to the other . . .
  • David Boder: Speak louder. Yes. What is this? [Aside] 15.
  • Marko Moskovitz: This is a man.
  • David Boder: Yes? And what . . .
  • Marko Moskovitz: He looks like a Mussulman.
  • David Boder: Yes? Speak louder. What does he look like?
  • Marko Moskovitz: Like a Mussulman.
  • David Boder: Ja? What is a Muselmann?
  • Marko Moskovitz: A Mussulman is a man [just] skin and bones.
  • David Boder: Who called him a Mussulman?
  • Marko Moskovitz: What?
  • David Boder: Who named him 'Mussulman'?
  • Marko Moskovitz: The Germans.
  • David Boder: And what did they do with the Mussulmen?
  • Marko Moskovitz: They said, 'You are a Mussulman. You are not to [have no right to] live any more.'
  • David Boder: And then?
  • Marko Moskovitz: And then he was told, 'Get up [?], man. You are not to live any more. You go to the crematory.'
  • David Boder: Hm. And what is this?
  • Marko Moskovitz: This is two women and a man. They are doing farm work.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Marko Moskovitz: This perhaps is happening in America.
  • David Boder: Hm. [A long pause.] All right. And what is this?
  • Marko Moskovitz: This is a child. Looks at the violin and thinks he can go on playing, because he had been good.
  • David Boder: What had he been?
  • Marko Moskovitz: He had been good and he can go on playing.
  • David Boder: Aha. Nu?
  • David Boder: [In English] This concludes the interview with Mark Moskovski on July 30, 1946, a boy of, hm, Czechoslovakia, age 19.
  • Contributors to this text:
  • Transcription : Dagmar Platt
  • English Translation : David P. Boder