David P. Boder Interviews Wolf Nehrich; August 26, 1946; Geneva, Switzerland

  • David Boder: [In English] Geneva, Switzerland, August the 26th, 1946, in a foyer for boys, who are in training in preparation for eh Palestine, mostly. It is a foyer where they live and have other lessons than their professional ones. Rather an old building but surrounded by beautiful gardens. The interviewee, as a matter of fact, I came here when the boys saw me at school and suggested, suggested that I come over. They apparently will be ready subjects. I'm going to stay here this evening. The first interviewee is Wolf Nehrich.
  • David Boder: [In German] Eh, will you speak German or Yiddish, what do you want to speak?
  • Wolf Nehrich: It doesn't matter.
  • David Boder: Yes so, speak whatever you want. Make yourself comfortable, and you don't need to eh worry about whether you speak one language or another. Well, Nehrich, do tell me the full name. What age are you, and where are you born?
  • Wolf Nehrich: My name is Wolf Nehrich. I am born in Poland in Debice [probably the name of the town] on the 26th of December 1928.
  • David Boder: Eh, Debice is in which district?
  • Wolf Nehrich: It is in eh, well, it is, its name is Debice, which is in Poland.
  • David Boder: Near what, which big city?
  • Wolf Nehrich: [unintelligible]
  • David Boder: Was it Russian Poland or German Poland?
  • Wolf Nehrich: . . . it is Middle Poland.
  • David Boder: Yes, it was Middle Poland. Well, Nehrich, tell me, eh, what happened to you, when the Germans came to Poland, when the war began, and everything you went through afterwards. Tell it as you like, speak freely, and you don't need to hurry.
  • Wolf Nehrich: The Germans arrived. We gradually had to flee, but despite everything they caught us. We get to know that the whole school was closed down. We were not allowed to learn anymore because of political reasons.
  • David Boder: Which school did you go to?
  • Wolf Nehrich: The college. A Jewish college.
  • David Boder: Yes. And then?
  • Wolf Nehrich: [unintelligible]
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: How old where you then?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Eh, back then I was eh eleven years old.
  • David Boder: Eleven years.
  • Wolf Nehrich: When the war began.
  • David Boder: When the war began? And who was in your family?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Well, two more brothers and the parents.
  • David Boder: Your father and your mother?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: What was your father occupied? What was his occupation?
  • Wolf Nehrich: We had a store.
  • David Boder: Of which?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Textile goods.
  • David Boder: What?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Textile goods.
  • David Boder: A manufacture store. Yes. In [unintelligible place name].
  • Wolf Nehrich: Not in [unintelligible place name], in Königshütte.
  • David Boder: What?
  • Wolf Nehrich: In Königshütte.
  • David Boder: Königshütte?
  • Wolf Nehrich: In Königshütte. We lived in Königshütte, afterwards.
  • David Boder: What is its name? Königs
  • Wolf Nehrich: Königshütte.
  • David Boder: Königshütte. Alright. This sounds English. Königshütte.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Now tell me, eh: How were, how old were your brothers and sisters?
  • Wolf Nehrich: The younger brother is born in 1930, and the older brother in 1924.
  • David Boder: I see. And, eh, your sister?
  • Wolf Nehrich: I didn't have one.
  • David Boder: I see, so it was only two brothers.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes
  • David Boder: . . . and your parents.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Now, tell me what happened. Make yourself comfortable and talk.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Then we had to move into a different city, because Königshütte was cleaned of Jews, we had to go to Będzin.
  • David Boder: So the Germans said, this city had to be cleaned of Jews.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Cleaned of Jews, yes.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, we had to go to Będzin. We arrived in Będzin. I had to do a, some work or other, as not to be forced to go to Germany.
  • David Boder: But your father had the store? What did he do with the store?
  • Wolf Nehrich: They took the store away from us.
  • David Boder: What does that mean? How did they take it away from you?
  • Wolf Nehrich: The Germans came, took the keys away and threw us out, and we then had to be without everything.
  • David Boder: And did you go away with some things?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, you could only take some small things. Whatever you were carrying you could take with you. You had to go to a different city, where there were only Jews. That was a kind of, a kind of, how do you call it, ghetto.
  • David Boder: Yes. Did you go away by yourself?
  • Wolf Nehrich: No, with the parents.
  • David Boder: Yes, but I mean, did the family go away on their own? You bought a ticket and then you were off?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, yes.
  • David Boder: Well, go on.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And then I came to this city Będzin. There you had to do work again, so I got into a factory, a side, in a carpenter's workshop. There I worked for one and a half years.
  • David Boder: You where eleven years old, back then? Or twelve?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Eleven.
  • David Boder: Eleven.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: How tall were you. Were you a tall boy?
  • Wolf Nehrich: No. Of course, when you are eleven years old you are still small.
  • David Boder: Well then, how did a side factory accept you?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, there, eh, there was a Wehrmacht-factory. You produced crates for bombs and for the Wehrmacht desks and beds and such things, and there I worked.
  • David Boder: What did you do there?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Eh, working at machines and so on. Although I was still young, I was placed there and I had to work at them. The machines were dangerous, but you weren't allowed to say anything, because you were a Jew.
  • David Boder: I see. Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: And eh, thus dangerously I had soon worked half a year with the foreman. So I was there half a year.
  • David Boder: As what?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Well, as a, eh, carpenter, too.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And one, one and a half years in the factory. Together it was two years. Later on there had already been enough work done in the factory; they didn't need any more crates for bombs and so on. Then they simply took me from home, as I was just returning from work, and they sent me into the camp.
  • David Boder: I see. Tell me, how did they take you from the house? You came home from work, what happened then?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Came back from work. Came the Gestapo with a note saying I was on the list, so I should eh turn myself in, no? At this and that time.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And I went on my own . . .
  • David Boder: Now hang on. The Gestapo, they were Poles, they were . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: [interrupts] no Germans. Imperial Germans [orig.: "Reichsdeutsche"]
  • David Boder: Imperial Germans came and said . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: . . . you had to . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes with the list. I must turn myself in at 3 o'clock in the afternoon.
  • David Boder: Well? On the next day?
  • Wolf Nehrich: On the next day.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: And in the mean time I ran away during the night, and I hid.
  • David Boder: When?
  • Wolf Nehrich: I hid during the night.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: And then they searched for me, they were told, were told, I'm not there. I'm in the factory. I wasn't in my factory either. I hid in the factory in a tank, on top of it.
  • David Boder: Oh, you hid in the factory?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes
  • David Boder: Yes
  • Wolf Nehrich: And then came, they took my father as hostage. When I don't turn myself in, they send the father to Auschwitz.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: I was scared then. So I turned myself in.
  • David Boder: And the father, did they . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: [interrupts] then they released the father.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: I later came into an armament camp.
  • David Boder: Who told you, that your father was taken hostage?
  • Wolf Nehrich: The brother came to the factory and said that they had taken the father.
  • David Boder: I see. So you came back?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: That was in the year of 1941.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And then I turned myself in. I went to the police. At the Gestapo they sent me again to in an armament camp, this is in a smaller town. And from there they took us as skilled workers, you know? Was as a carpenter with eleven, with twelve years of age, they took us to, eh, to Germany.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: To a camp. There you already started to be forced to work.
  • David Boder: In which camp was that?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Sakrau.
  • David Boder: Sakrau.
  • Wolf Nehrich: That was the first camp.
  • David Boder: Where is it?
  • Wolf Nehrich: This was in Upper Silesia. German Upper Silesia.
  • David Boder: Yes, well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: I worked in a forest. Food was scarce.
  • David Boder: What did you work there?
  • Wolf Nehrich: You cut down trees.
  • David Boder: And what did you do?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Also cut down trees and carried them to the country road.
  • David Boder: Was this with other Jews?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. Only Jews.
  • David Boder: Only Jews, Well, and where . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: [interrupts] under surveillance.
  • David Boder: What?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Under surveillance.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Germans kept guard over me.
  • David Boder: And where did you sleep?
  • Wolf Nehrich: In barracks.
  • David Boder: Uh. Well? How long did that last, and what happened then?
  • Wolf Nehrich: After this, they took me again in, uh, just thinking how long for. They sent us again as 52 skilled workers to eh, Karwin. That was in Czechia, "Sudetenland."
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, and there we were, we worked as skilled workers with concrete. We built a power plant. The power plant wasn't finished yet, when they had to send us away, because there were a lot of guerrillas. They were scared we would flee one after the other, because many fled from the camp. Then they sent us away again to eh, Groß Masselwitz. To another camp. There I stayed again for a while, working.
  • David Boder: Masselwitz or Misselwitz?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Masselwitz, Groß Masselwitz.
  • David Boder: Yes, well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: In this camp you worked again on eh, new cars for the "Wehrmacht," again. Building new ones and motorways. This means building the country road. Concrete, all these things. Building new motorways. And there they sent us again, there were already to many people there, and food was scarce, they sent us to Klettendorf.
  • David Boder: Where is it?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Klettendorf is near Breslau [Polish name: Wroclaw].
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: In a camp. We worked there in the fields, we did, yes, made a trench for grid gas pipes, from gas.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Those were these big pipes, you know, we layered earth on. You had to work hard doing it. We made a six kilometer shaft. Two meters five, eh, two meters 20 down you had to . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] Dig.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. Making it in one day. Five meters long.
  • David Boder: uh.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Those who could do it, could do it, and those who couldn't were beaten.
  • David Boder: Every single one had to dig five meters long and two meters twenty [centimeters] deep?
  • Wolf Nehrich: [interrupts] Long and two meters twenty, yes, in one day.
  • David Boder: Two meters twenty deep?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. When it, when it was hard earth or stony, they granted you one more day.
  • David Boder: I see. And eh, when it wasn't finished? What?
  • Wolf Nehrich: You got, then you got beaten and maybe sometimes, when somebody had worked even worse, for example, when he was weak, he didn't get food that day.
  • David Boder: I see. Well? Eh, did you always work enough?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. I did most times, yes sometimes, when I had good earth it went faster and if not, I got beaten just as much as all the others.
  • David Boder: Who was that, who beat you?
  • Wolf Nehrich: The foreman himself.
  • David Boder: Who is the foreman?
  • Wolf Nehrich: The foreman was a German guard, no? A foreman . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] Was he prisoner, prisoner?
  • Wolf Nehrich: No, no. He was an Imperial German.
  • David Boder: And the foreman himself beat you?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: And afterwards eh, we stayed there eh, roughly five months, and then we were sent again to eh Landeshut. We were taken, only eh youths, up until eh 16 years of age, youths. They sent us there. They said we would then work in a weaving mill. Instead we had to work at a building site, too, with stones, carrying clay stones. And we had to erect stone barracks for the bomb, bombed ones from Germany.
  • David Boder: Hm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Those, who had been bombed on the French border, those had, were homeless, they had to, they came to barracks we had erected. It was a very bad camp. It was very unclean, and it wasn't good to sleep in. You had to sleep solely on the earth, one on top of the other. And we, eh, got little to eat. A lot died there, because of hunger and some because of the beatings and because of the dirt. It was various such things, that are unpleasant to speak of.
  • David Boder: Yes, but we want to know this.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, there were lice for example, you see, how to call it, and flees and various other of these elements.
  • David Boder: Eh, now tell me how? You say the people died of hunger? How does somebody die of hunger?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Somebody is eh, sick, you know, when he gets little food, and he has to work hard he gets sick and afterwards.
  • David Boder: I see, they got sick of their own accord.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: And what did . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: [interrupts] And when you are ill, when you are unfit for work, you get various injections, such, that you even die. Because they say, who cannot work must, is unfit for work.
  • David Boder: I see. Well, did they give injections in your camp?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. Injections, it was even SS doctors, who gave petroleum injections. And even if somebody had pus, they took the pus and injected it the sick.
  • David Boder: Who had pus?
  • Wolf Nehrich: There were some, who had an abscess on the foot or something. They took out the abscess with a syringe and injected somebody else, who was already dying, a syringe with pus, and then he was poisoned and died.
  • David Boder: Did you see that yourself?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Experienced it myself, saw it, yes.
  • David Boder: Where did they do it? At the station?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, in the sick ward.
  • David Boder: And why were you there?
  • Wolf Nehrich: That, eh, I came in there now and again. Sometimes you needed a bandage, it was different things. You were [unintelligible word] at the building site, or something hit you, a track, or a stone on the foot or somehow.
  • David Boder: Then you came to the station, too?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Of course.
  • David Boder: And who worked at the station?
  • Wolf Nehrich: There were doctors, there were prisoner doctors, you see, and there were eh . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] The SS?
  • Wolf Nehrich: They were Jewish doctors and they were SS doctors, medical officers.
  • David Boder: And who gave the injections?
  • Wolf Nehrich: The SS.
  • David Boder: The SS gave the injections. Simply taking pus from somebody's wounds . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: . . . and injecting it.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Well, go on.
  • Wolf Nehrich: After that, they eh sent us from Landeshut. Already were, they organized a transport of 30 sick people, 20 sick people and 30 eh healthy people, who were still fit for work, who were still fit to work were supposed to go to Blechhammer [Polish name: Blachownia Slaska].
  • David Boder: To Blechhammer?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Well, I went with, with this . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] Blechhammer is near which eh camp?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Blechhammer is in Upper Silesia, too.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Well, with, back then I came with the transport to Auschwitz, because I, I was sick too. I was weak, and all. So they sent me to Auschwitz after all. I got there, then they made roll call. And you had to get undressed a bit, half undressed. And a doctor went round and checked who was still fit for work and who wasn't. I was still deemed fit for work for two weeks.
  • David Boder: What does this mean? They still got two weeks . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: [interrupts] Two weeks working. Those who couldn't work at all any more, those of course entered through a big gate and came back out through the chimney, this is the crematorium.
  • David Boder: [unintelligible]
  • Wolf Nehrich: They gassed them, they died in the crematorium.
  • David Boder: Did you see the crematories?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: What did they look like?
  • Wolf Nehrich: I even have a picture of the crematorium in Buchenwald.
  • David Boder: What?
  • Wolf Nehrich: I even have a picture of the crem-, one taken at the crematorium in Buchenwald.
  • David Boder: Who took the picture?
  • Wolf Nehrich: An American, the American soldiers after the liberation.
  • David Boder: Yes, but Buchenwald was no extermination camp.
  • Wolf Nehrich: It was just like any other camp.
  • David Boder: Why?
  • Wolf Nehrich: In Auschwitz the crematorium was a bit bigger than in eh, Buchenwald. They had, in Auschwitz there was gas chamber as well, and in Buchenwald there were no gas chambers. There they hanged. Anyway, I was deemed still clean and fit for work, and so they tattooed a number on my hand.
  • David Boder: Which number where you?
  • Wolf Nehrich: 178141
  • David Boder: one hundred seventy eight
  • Wolf Nehrich: eight, one thousand, you see, hundred
  • David Boder: one hundred . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: forty . . .
  • David Boder: . . . one
  • Wolf Nehrich: . . . forty one.
  • David Boder: one hundred forty one.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: And a triangle, no triangle?
  • Wolf Nehrich: No.
  • David Boder: Ah, 141.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Who did the tattoos?
  • Wolf Nehrich: It was prisoners, who were especially eh, picked for these things.
  • David Boder: Yes
  • Wolf Nehrich: To tattoo.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And then they . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] And how did they tattoo?
  • Wolf Nehrich: It was a kind of quill, you know, like for an injection, and in the quill was a needle, like an injection needle, and they eh filled it with ink, and it doesn't come off again.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: It stays for a while. The arm [unintelligible ending of sentence]. And then they did, eh, because I was fit for work, they did not leave me in Auschwitz. I did not, I didn't work. You only ever had to do such useless work, carrying stones from one place to the next, eh, tidying up and various things. And you had to stand a few hours during roll call every morning, and every night they woke us up, and afterwards they sent me to eh Blechhammer, too. I came to Blechhammer, they had me, I went onto a building site, where there was a big plant, eh, there they produced gasoline. Coal was dug there. Gasoline was extracted from the coal, and eh, a substance for margarine and a substance for saccharin. The rest was coke.
  • David Boder: What is a substance for margarine?
  • Wolf Nehrich: What was extracted from the coal, a kind of substance . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] a substance margarine is made out of?
  • Wolf Nehrich: [interrupts] Yes, margarine and also a kind of substance you make saccharin out of.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Afterwards, there you, I worked with tracks, railway construction.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And that was a work, eh that was very hard. We had to work at piece-rate, unloading every day four, five coaches with tracks and crossties additionally.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And we always loaded the coaches. There were many accidents, because they chased us, we hard to work a lot. The foremen were always screaming, we had to work for the empire, for the Führer, and for the plant [orig.: "für Reich, für Führer und für Werk"] And when . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] For the empire, for the Führer . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: For the Führer and for the plant.
  • David Boder: . . . and for the plant. And?
  • Wolf Nehrich: We didn't want to do it, just as we didn't want to do anything, I know, that wasn't needed.
  • David Boder: No.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Anyway, we had to do it. And eh, towards the end the plant was bombed much, very heavily, and so, eh, after half a year working there, on a coach, there was an air raid by American planes, and they bombed the entire plant.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And I, eh, a lot, we were never allowed to protect us, trenches against splinters. So I protected myself beneath a, a stack of crossties. And as I . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] a stack of what?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Of crossties.
  • David Boder: Crossties?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Crossties, yes. Railway crossties.
  • David Boder: [speaks simultaneously with Nehrich] Railway crossties.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. And all of a sudden, a couple of bombs fell. I protected myself a little, against the splinters, against the bombs you couldn't protect yourself.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Then, eh, a bomb fell, eh a bomb about one and a half meters, about one and a half to two meters away from me. And everything went up in the air, including me. When I came back to earth, I was already unconscious, as I flew up I wanted to scream [unintelligible word], but I couldn't scream do it anymore, because I was already unconscious. I fell down into a hole, where the, a bomb had already landed, a bomb crater. And afterwards I lay down there, unconscious, the hole was closed again by another bomb.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Was closed again by another bomb, and I was beneath the earth, about two meters. I didn't know at all, whether I would be able to somehow get out from down there. There were . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] Yes, the earth was completely on top of you?
  • Wolf Nehrich: On top of me. Entire stones with various. I lay down there, I don't know, maybe it was too deep, maybe it was damp, there was a bit of air. I lay down there one hour.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Then, next to me, eh they were maybe ten meters away in a trench against splinters; there were prisoners of war, English and French. The protected themselves there, because they were no, eh, not under the SS, guarded only by the Wehrmacht. They saw how I . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] The French and English were under the Wehrmacht?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Under the Wehrmacht.
  • David Boder: [speaks over Nehrich] They could protect themselves.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: And they saw how I flew in the air, after the raid they wanted to search for me. Because they were, we always lived as comrades together on the building site. They searched for me, and luckily they found me after one hour underneath the earth. And the right upper arm was broken.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: After that they brought me to, to the camp. They had to carry me, and the people didn't have strength back then, because about 75, roughly 75 or 76 dead on that day. And over 200 eh wounded. I was amongst them, too. So they didn't even have the strength to carry me onto the building site, they had to drag me on the earth.
  • David Boder: Why? They had no strength?
  • Wolf Nehrich: No, they didn't have strength, they carried me a little and the dragged me on the earth a little and various. We didn't have no car, nothing. Couldn't . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] How far was it?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Three quarters of an hour from the building site on foot . . .
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: . . . into the camp. Afterwards we came near the camp, already ten minutes away from the camp, a car passed, and an SS man stopped and threw us into the car. And they brought me into a, into the camp by car.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Then I came into the sick ward. They, they tried to fix my arm somehow. They, it was only cracked in one, eh, two places, you know, broken through, so they put it back into a joint, the way it had been, and they searched for plaster, to do a bit more. The doctor at the moment was a Polish Jew, he was very decent in this camp, and said, because I was still young, he said, he would save me somehow with this, and he made me a cast, that, eh, I had the cast for three weeks. It should have stayed six weeks on the hand, on the arm, because, it stayed only three weeks, because it was filthy there in the barracks, the bugs crawled underneath and then bit, that I couldn't stand it anymore, so the doctor took the cast off after three weeks. I didn't have the cast anymore, it was only a, a roll of bandage, a packet of bandage, so he made me a strong bandage and I had it for three more weeks. But afterwards the arm didn't grow together straight, it is a little bent.
  • David Boder: And it is still bent?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Not very much. Of course, a little.
  • David Boder: Yes. Where was it broke?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Here at the top.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Here, at this spot. And afterwards, eh, I should, rightfully I should only stay four days in the sick ward. Because if you are in the sick ward that long, you don't get food there, you are unfit for work.
  • David Boder: Sick ward you call it, yes?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. That's the "Revier." And afterwards they send you to Auschwitz, when you are unable, unfit for work and you end up in the crematorium. But the doctor eh, he liked me, and so, every time the medical officer came, came from Auschwitz to check.
  • David Boder: Mhm, well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: When he came, he said, they hid me in a chamber or somewhere, so that the medical officer wouldn't see me, that I stayed that long.
  • David Boder: And?
  • Wolf Nehrich: And, eh, when the medical officer came, the doctor said, I was already at the building site, and so I was still there after the six weeks, they took of half the cast, and eh, I, the doctor had to give me the massage. Hand massage. With Vaseline and so on, to make the arm straight again, because it was stiff from the dress-, from the cast.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Then I worked, in the mean time, in the sick ward with the doctor, assisting variously, boiling out the instruments and various things. He realized, I knew these things a little, I was able to do various things. And sometimes I stood with operations, because the doctor saw, it doesn't bother me much, when I stand with operations. It was various amputations of the finger, and eh cutting various abscesses and phlegmons. And afterwards there came, that was already 1944, end of, eh near the end already. In December, at the end of December. Afterwards it was already cold in December. There were a lot of sick people in the sick ward, so I had to go back to the building site. I came to the building site, I worked, because, in a building that had been bombed, the machines had to be taken out, the machines that had been in the building had to be pulled out of the rubble, where it was bombed. Afterwards, it was on the 21st of January 1945 the Russians, the Russian army was six kilometers away from the camp. And it was very dangerous, so they evacuated us, so the Russians would not meet us, us alive in the camp. 4300 men were evacuated on that occasion. How far and where we would walk we didn't know. We didn't get no food. We didn't know how long we would walk. We had to [unintelligible word] . . .
  • David Boder: You marched?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: When . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] Tell me more about the march, and what happened on the way.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. We came out on the 21st of January 1945, and we walked throughout the whole time. There was snow; we walked over mountains and through fields. We were not allowed to walk along the country road, because it was, eh, the Wehrmacht retreated at that time. So the country roads where all blocked, so we had to take various back roads . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] And who led you?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Food we didn't get. There were guards every few meters, five, six meters there was an SS man, and on the guns stuck bayonets. And we walked, in a few, few hours others fell, because of the frost and the cold and so on. We didn't have anything to drink, and they didn't give us any food. They simply evacuated us. They wanted to see who would last, and those who won't hold out, will hold out, who will not, doesn't have luck on his side.
  • David Boder: And what did they do with those who didn't hold out?
  • Wolf Nehrich: They were eh, taken out of the rows and were thrown into the field, snow and on top with the snow and that was it all.
  • David Boder: Yes, but when they were not yet dead?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Then they were left there. Or they were, some who would last a while longer, eh, would last a few hours, were shot and were thrown on top, and those would die soon where thrown on top of the snow and then they died on, in the snow.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And, eh, you had to drink something there. So we want, wanted to drink snow, then the SS men said, we weren't allowed to.
  • David Boder: Why?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Because we would become sick from the snow.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: They, first they shoot us with various things, and then they're afraid all of a sudden, we would become sick. But they didn't care for us, they thought it would be worse if we couldn't drink a little.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Afterwards we . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] And what did the SS men eat and drink? They had something with them, didn't they?
  • Wolf Nehrich: They always bought provisions from one village to the next.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And if not, they. I once tried, tried to flee on the way. I got away into a village during the night, into a barn. And in the, in this barn I crawled into a straw and I thought, I would be all alone. I was hungry, that was already on the eighth or ninth day. The farmer came when I was there. I told him I was a German, I, we were bombed, I said, and, because I didn't want to say that I was a Jew, that I was with the evacuated. So I said, we were bombed and everybody ran away somewhere, and I went into this barn, he should bring me something to eat. He brought me food, bread, you know, and something cooked. And all of a sudden four SS men enter the barn. He went off, back into his room, and I stayed under this straw, I even couldn't eat anything, because I was afraid. And the SS men start to strike the straw and search if somebody's there. They searched for the Jews in one barn after the other, whether somebody stayed behind.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Well, they started to strike. The bayonet went through my hand, beside this hand. I became scared I would get the next strike, so I threw off the heap with the straw and came out.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: SS men soon positioned themselves in front of me with the guns. And, ehm, they said: Get out! How many are you. I said: I'm on my own. Says he: You're lying. Says I: But, I'm here, I think, I'm here on my own. They continued searching, they found seven more. The seven didn't know I was there, and I didn't know the seven were there. Fortunately they were drunk and they . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] the SS were drunk.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. They were drunk.
  • David Boder: [speaks over Nehrich] Not you were drunk.
  • Wolf Nehrich: No. The SS men were drunk. And so they didn't know what to do, because at that moment they told us: What shall we do with you? And we want to say they should let us live, so they want to say: Don't give us orders. We want to say: Do what ever you want, then they would want to simply shoot us. We didn't answer. Did they say to us: Come on, back into line. And we had to run after them the whole bit, they had already walked on, eh, slowly. We had to run after them through all the snow and over the mountains until we got back to the line.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: I already . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] Where the SS men from your transport?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. The SS men were from our Jews. Four, five SS men always stayed there in order to search whether somebody had stayed behind here.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: You walked through the fields; afterwards you came into a village.
  • David Boder: They simply let you run. They said to collect at night with the transport.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, they followed in a motorized convoy, we had to run on foot.
  • David Boder: I see. Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: And eh, afterwards we eh walked, that was, that was, was already a few days later after I had fled. So, during one of the nights we arrived in Groß-Rosen [Polish name: Rogoznica].
  • David Boder: Groß-Rosen is where?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Groß-Rosen, it is near [maybe "Greuslitz" / unclear place name], it is not far from Breslau as well . . .
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: . . . roughly, we went there. It eh is near Schweidnitz [Polish name: Świdnica], this area we went to afterwards, it was a big camp too, a very bad camp. There were many prisoners, the German prisoners of war eh, the professional criminals and dangerous criminals, those, who already had been in concentration camps for ten and twelve years for murder and the like. They were all Germans. And they beat us when we came in. First we got 80 "deka" [i.e., "dekagram"] for twelve men back then. So everybody got one, got one bite, as we came in.
  • David Boder: This means, everybody took a bite from the same bread?
  • Wolf Nehrich: No, they gave us one loaf of bread for twelve men.
  • David Boder: And how did you share it out?
  • Wolf Nehrich: And you took a knife, everybody got one little piece and that was all.
  • David Boder: Who had the knife?
  • Wolf Nehrich: We got them. They lent us one knife for every twelve men for cutting and took it back soon.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: You had to give back the knife soon. Afterwards they chased us inside. You couldn't sleep well. There were already evacuated from different transports, they had come there into the camp. So they told us to walk above all things during the night. Straight down these stairs, and we didn't know where we were going. It was dark. You weren't allowed to have lighting outside because of the air raids. We should have gone right, instead they told us to left, and left there was a heap of feces a whole square, and we stepped into the feces up over the knees. We couldn't get out at all.
  • David Boder: What kind of feces?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Feces. Simply. Brought from fields from different places, eh, from sand, made wet with clay and that.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And you could up over the knees. And it was winter then, of course. It was, it was freezing and that. It was cold after all. Many froze off their feet, the toes and so on. Afterwards they eh they hit us, so that we would get out of the dirt into the barracks into this hall. But you couldn't walk fast, because you couldn't get out of these feces that quickly after all. But you had to, those who could, got out, and those who couldn't stayed put, lying in the feces until in the morning and perhaps were frozen to death when found.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: I too went into the hall. Because, eh, I somehow found a way to get out of the dirt, I tormented myself long enough. Then I went into the hall and lay down on the earth. Came in the camp eldest, an Imperial German, he was with a, such a green triangle [Note: he uses the German word "Winkel," literally "angle." In the Third Reich, a "Winkel" was the term for the color coded concentration camp identification badges, usually triangular. Therefore, "Winkel" is translated as "triangle."] It was red triangle on the left chest, was a political . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] political
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, and green triangle criminal.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: There was also, eh, black triangle: sabotage. It was a green triangle, he told us: everybody ou-, over to that side. The whole hall was crammed, that you couldn't move and he told us to go to one side. So, you couldn't, he beat us. And then . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] What did he hit you with?
  • Wolf Nehrich: With a riding crop.
  • David Boder: Oh, he had a riding crop?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Well.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Then he said: if you can [unintelligible sentence part], then everybody out, and we had to stand until the morning. So outside during the roll call, you counted the whole day. So three, four days we were there. We didn't work, we just collected dead people who lay on the square. And the ones frozen to death in the dirt, you had to mark them with a number, write it onto their feet, very big and then into the crematorium.
  • David Boder: What with?
  • Wolf Nehrich: With an ink pencil.
  • David Boder: What?
  • Wolf Nehrich: With an ink pencil.
  • David Boder: With an ink pencil.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: You wrote the number onto them.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. The number he had on the arm or on the trousers, you know, it has to be written onto the bones when they were undressed. Everybody was skinny after all, so you could write onto the bones. Then they were taken into the crematorium. After four days they said we would move on. We didn't know where to, they led us with, into railway cars, we were 100 men in one car. They, eh, cars for animals. And two sentinels are in this car.
  • David Boder: Two soldiers?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Two sentinels. Yes, they were the two SS men. Armed.
  • David Boder: In the car as well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. But they took up a quarter of the car the two, and we the three quarters.
  • David Boder: Why did they take up a quarter of the car? What did they do?
  • Wolf Nehrich: They, they were Germans, after all, they said, we don't want to knock against you here. We have to have it a little more comfortable.
  • David Boder: So what did they do?
  • Wolf Nehrich: So they took a quarter of the car, parted it with a plank, you know. And up to this plank we were allowed and not further.
  • David Boder: Well.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And we lay like that one top of the other. We drove for four days all in all. On the 9th of Feb-, eh.
  • David Boder: How did you go outside if you needed to, to the toilet or so?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, then they stopped, and eh you couldn't go all the way as well. A few times the train stopped, the pathways were always variously bombed. You had to stop. Then single people had to go outside, whoever needed to, always alone. And first of all we got 15 deka a day. 15 deka bread a day and then a black coffee.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: We arrived on the 9th of April we arrived on . . .
  • David Boder: 45.
  • Wolf Nehrich: On the 9th of February 45 we arrived in Weimar. It is near Buchenwald.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: So as we, eh some of the car were no freight cars or the like, but for work cars for bricks and such, entirely open. Eh, as we arrived in Weimar at about eleven at twelve o'clock the raid came.
  • David Boder: [speaks over Nehrich] At night?
  • Wolf Nehrich: No, during the day. Midday. Came an air raid. First a scout, an American plane signaled that everywhere at the station there was military. And after five minutes later, there soon came a whole, a whole air raid and they bombed us. And the sentinels here had to get us down, and the sentinels wanted to protect themselves. The sentinels ran out of the coach, did they see that there is military and they bombed us. A lot at that time, I was at that time [unintelligible word] in the knee here, I still have something here a mark, already the second time by a bomb. The hands I got splinters, into the hands, too, and eh a lot of dead, some were, were eh, you couldn't find them anymore. Only bits of them. And there were also two SS men eh dead. Of all the SS men only two. And because the two were dead, they beat us afterwards, because they said: your American comrades bombed us.
  • David Boder: Your American comrades.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Comrades shot us two eh, killed our two comrades. Afterwards we had to go back to roll call. All proper, stayed alive. Of all of them, of all the 4300 men who got out of Blechhammer 1200 were left over until Buchenwald.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: We came back to Buchenwald at night.
  • David Boder: [speaks over Nehrich] All men?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. No, women also came with us, but the women went somewhere else afterwards from Groß Rosen.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Well, afterwards we came, 1200 men, into Buchenwald at night. Because we first had to walk three-, thirteen kilometers on foot.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: To, eh from Weimar to Buchenwald. We got there at night; they brought us into a kind of wash room. There the bathed us. They took away all our clothes we had worn. They only gave us back prisoner's trousers, other ones, which were newly laundered. Eh, freshly laundered, they were clean. And a jacket and a shirt. And a cap, some kind of prisoner's cap. Without underpants, just like that.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: They brought us into big barracks, a horse stable, stable barracks. There we sat for a long time. Until they brought us in again a little soup. In Buchenwald there were already, came green triangles, such as Capos, and such. They were, uh, most people were Russians. They were also French, Czech, various. There were nationalities prisoners there from all over Europe, which took part in the war.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Well, afterwards I stayed there for two weeks in Buchenwald. We got to eat very little, too. Therefore they also gave us injections against typhus. We had to sleep on the barracks, eh sleep in the barracks on pallets. Eleven people had one and a half meters. One with the head and one the feet like that and diagonally across various, however you could. A lot died there of typhus illnesses and pneumonia. I lay with them all, and I don't know, somehow a miracle, I wasn't, I didn't have anything wrong with me. I didn't have anything wrong with me. Afterwards, afterwards they sent us to eh, Hannover as eh, skilled workers. I was, I was still young, but . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] You were a carpenter.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, carpenter. They sent me to Hannover. Into a big . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] To Hannover?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. They sent us in a transport, eh 200 men from Buchenwald came to Hannover into an aircraft factory, and V2 was built there.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: There we worked in the plant that was underneath the earth. 15 me-, 50 meters underneath the earth in a plant it was . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] And, in Hannover.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: A plant underneath the earth?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. And there we built, you know, the aircrafts, eh, produced them. We didn't build them alone, but we had to unload the parts for them and assemble them and cut the aluminum for the V2 with scissors, with mechanic scissors, all that we had to do. Hard work with these things.
  • David Boder: Only Jews?
  • Wolf Nehrich: No, there were also Italians and there were Jews, There were other nationalities, too from different countries . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts with an unintelligible question]
  • Wolf Nehrich: No. Those were not. There were French, Czech, Yugoslavs, Italians and Poles and Austrians and Germans, too. From various nationalities.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Afterwards, eh, there was a hall, where Jews were not allowed there. It was only for eh for Imperial Germans. There they designed the plans, and there were machines which put together the V2 quickly and screwed in, put in the dynamite into the V2.
  • David Boder: Where those prisoners there as well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: No. There only the Imperial Germans, who were higher up, higher up professionals, were allowed . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] In.
  • Wolf Nehrich: . . . to come in. Once a eh, a foreman, it was an Imperial German, he had to bring in a big plate of aluminum into this, into this room where the Jews were not allowed, and he told me to come, too. I showed him the sign: it says there on the sign, eh, I pointed with my hand that there is a sign put up: only for Imperial Germans. Jews keep out!
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: So he said, eh, so he signals with his hand, looks at me: come, nobody will see. The sentinel was just turned the other way.
  • David Boder: [In English] Spool Number 76. Wolf Nehrich continues the interview.
  • David Boder: [In German] Well, where were you?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Well, I took in with me the plate of this aluminum.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Eh, into this, into this room where Jews were not allowed. And I walk past through a machine where, eh, a big machine, you know, and I wanted to do something, to, do a bit of sabotage, without anybody spotting me doing it. I unscrewed the one, only one bolt and nut and went away from there again. Nobody saw me doing it. I did it in this room, because Jews were not allowed in there, and then it would be clear, if something happens then only the Imperial Germans are guilty and not us. Nobody gets the damage except them. And eh, it was guarded severely, and if they don't see me I'll be successful. And I only unscrewed one bolt and nut and pushed it away with the foot. Afterwards I went outside. Two days the machine worked, and during the second day, already near closing time, you hear a huge crash, the machine collapses.
  • David Boder: Well.
  • Wolf Nehrich: They didn't know who had done it. They wanted to investigate, but the foremen themselves didn't want to investigate, because they thought, it was their fault. But nobody was allowed to say this. This foreman, who had taken me inside, wanted, knew, perhaps he realized that it was me, who did it. But he was scared to say so, because it was him, who had called me inside. He hadn't been allowed to. If he says something, then they take me, and they take him, too. Himself. That's why he didn't say anything. And it already didn't make a difference for them anymore, the Germans, because they knew, they would be game over soon.
  • David Boder: They knew that?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Well, how did they, did that show? That they knew?
  • Wolf Nehrich: What?
  • David Boder: Eh, how . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: [interrupts] That they had lost?
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: They saw the American front slowly coming closer. Already they were not far from Hannover and always nearer. Two days after I had done that they already brought us back to Buchenwald, because there was the Americ-, the American front.
  • David Boder: Who brought you back to Buchenwald?
  • Wolf Nehrich: The Germans. The SS brought us, just as they brought us from Buchenwald to Hannover, they brought us back again to Buchenwald . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] By train or on foot?
  • Wolf Nehrich: In the coach. Only train.
  • David Boder: They took to, to Buchenwald.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: And, what was there?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. We came back to Buchenwald. There they had evacuated again an entire transport. It was said evacuation to Theresienstadt, but they took them into a tent of the camp, in an, eh, forest and they shot them all.
  • David Boder: How do you know this?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Because after the liberation we, we saw them, that. We afterwards, the poor dead where in bags, and they afterwards were brought into the camp, and they were buried.
  • David Boder: Were they buried in Buchenwald?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. Well, next to the camp.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: There was a big cemetery made after the liberation.
  • David Boder: Was that the place, where they made the Germans say how [unintelligible sentence ending].
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, the Germans had to come with these, the dead one after the other, into the cemetery. I will turn to that later.
  • David Boder: Yes. Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Well, at the time, I turned in the various, I lay down amongst the dead, where there were already a few.
  • David Boder: Why?
  • Wolf Nehrich: They should think I was dead. Then they won't evacuate me.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: The dead stay [unintelligible sentence ending]. If I go on evacuation, then I know that I am already dead [Note: most of the time, Nehrich uses the German word "kaputt," which he intends to mean "dead"; literally, "kaputt" means "broken," "out of order," or "destroyed."]. And in order to make people come eh of their own choosing, so that they wouldn't need to pull them, or eh, search for them, they said there would be two breads at the exit.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: That is so that they leave sooner. Some were like that, they made their pockets full, they wanted the two breads, went there fast, and the two breads they didn't see. They afterwards only saw death in front of them. And I said: if I die, then I can die hungry, then I don't have to eat and I didn't go. I hid in various canals and amongst the dead, so that I always stayed. Then I again. An air raid came with seven planes, and, and the SS said, we have to wait until we get an order. And back then, there were 2000 SS men lay down on the big square between the casernes roundabout in such [unintelligible word]. And the planes lowered themselves with machine guns. Back then seven planes shot all SS men, the 2,000 that lay there, dead.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: With machine guns. They didn't throw bombs.
  • David Boder: They were the American . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: [interrupts] American planes.
  • David Boder: They didn't throw bombs.
  • Wolf Nehrich: No, not.
  • David Boder: Did they realize those were SS, SS men?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, you see the barracks after all, with the eh, swastika, and you also see the uniforms of the SS.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: You see after all, that it is military. And even more so when they protect themselves.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: They lie straight on the earth, after all, because they thought maybe that would protect them somehow. And it was still daylight.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Afterwards they saw, that the SS men are not there, are dead. They soon produced interim guards, [unintelligible sentence part], camp, for, for the camp.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: For the evacuation, for the surveillance.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: So they brought others instead of the 2,000, you know, and they especially, we ran away back then, all camps, the planes after the battle flew above the camp a little, then they flew away again.
  • David Boder: Yes. Well, who picked up these 2,000 SS men, removed them?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Cars soon came, various people, big car. You know, they put the Germans on the car and drove them off. Where to you didn't know. We just saw the cars, the trucks of the eh red cross.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Just like all other wounded and sick from the front.
  • David Boder: Yes. Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: So, at that time we were still, that eh, that was around, maybe the 7th or 8th..
  • David Boder: 8th of what?
  • Wolf Nehrich: On the 8th of eh . . .
  • David Boder: April?
  • Wolf Nehrich: April yes.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: So, we still had a few days there amongst my block where there were youths. You know, and we should evacuate the next day, that was already the 10th. They said we had to evacuate the next day. Back then it was still, there were before that day, one week 70,000, 71,000 prisoners.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Or 72, depending on, 51,000 were shot and 21,000 were liberated.
  • David Boder: What? A quarter how many were . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: [interrupts] There were 72,000.
  • David Boder: Yes. How many were shot?
  • Wolf Nehrich: 51
  • David Boder: Who shot them? And how?
  • Wolf Nehrich: SS took them into a forest and shot into the crowd, and eh, simply shot.
  • David Boder: And then, where did the bodies stay?
  • Wolf Nehrich: They stayed in the forest.
  • David Boder: The dead bodies stayed . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: [interruptst] Yes.
  • David Boder: . . . in the forest?
  • Wolf Nehrich: In the forest. In the forest, in the fields. It's not like that, when you shoot on top of the other. Then it doesn't take up so much space.
  • David Boder: Well, did you see that?
  • Wolf Nehrich: We afterwards saw the dead, and some fled from the dead.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: From the ones, who were to be shot, eh, as they wanted to shoot, some ran away.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: After the liberation we met them in the towns, and they told us everything.
  • David Boder: I see. Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: And, eh, well, they should eh evacuate on the next day, and then there came at maybe eleven or twelve, because right on the alarm, that means hand alarm. It was, it was called, it was a siren for five minutes, it means the front comes nearer. The American tanks were slowly, slowly coming nearer. And so we thought, that we, now everything is going to be ok, we will maybe live. And some didn't believe it. You can blow up the camp at the last moment after all. There were wires laid from the outside eh, from another from an, eh, external camp into the camp. It was in the foundation. You could simply press a button and the camp would blow up. We didn't know if we would manage to get out, or not. You couldn't cut the wire, because the wire was outside the camp.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: You couldn't get near it. And the barb wire was eh electrically charged. We were eh, so, after we saw that the tanks were arriving [unintelligible word], you already saw from far away the tanks driving. So we looked out through the windows. At the top there were small openings in the windows, there you looked outside. And we saw that, we saw the star on, a white star on a tank, you know. We didn't yet believe it ourselves, that it was the Americans, but still you saw the white star.
  • David Boder: And where were the SS?
  • Wolf Nehrich: The SS at the time had already pulled out of the camp. Some, some stayed. And the Americans were on a country road. They arrive, all, all SS are not gone yet. Some stayed, put on some different clothes, civilian clothing and wanted to get to the other side. They saw the tanks had arrived, the made a trench and hid in the trench.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: They couldn't cross the country road. Then soon a tank was round, across the camp. They knew that there, uh, that this was a concentration camp. Because one day earlier a plane had come through. That was on the 10th. The day, it was nice sunshine. And they let down a few flyers that tomorrow, that they would try to get through tomorrow. And they threw an empty gasoline barrel out of the plane, with one bread, one white American bread.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: We were so happy. It is clear to everybody, everybody liked it. Many threw themselves on the bread, so everybody got just a small piece. [Unintelligible word] tore it entirely apart.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: The flyers came down only in our camp, and some flyers came down only a few, two maybe three, came down across the fence. Then SS men found the flyers, that . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] And how where the flyers printed?
  • Wolf Nehrich: The flyers were printed they would come tomorrow. It was block capitals, or printed?
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Just like that.
  • David Boder: Mimeographed.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: And, eh, afterwards a tank came round across the camp, it had circled the entire camp. And soon it drove through the gate.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: A big giant tank. And he circled the entire camp on the inside. White flags were hung out, and we took various things onto the roofs, we waved to the planes. Soon planes came, that we waved to.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: And eh, we already saw, it was, now we are liberated. They had kept camp ammunition and guns and machine guns various.
  • David Boder: Who had kept these?
  • Wolf Nehrich: The political prisoners had prepared it, in case the moment comes.
  • David Boder: When?
  • Wolf Nehrich: And they worked outside the camp in a [unintelligible word], there was an ammunitions factory, eh, they produced ammunition. There they sometimes, they could smuggle such bits and pieces into the camp. And from there they put them together, afterwards they had guns and ammunition. And eh, the eh, powder, you know, for a canon to shoot. We eh, we saw, you know, that the tanks were already there, and more tanks arrive and trucks and various. Back then all the tank drivers came, the Americans, the 3rd, the 3rd army it was.
  • David Boder: And that was the [unintelligible word]army?
  • Wolf Nehrich: No, the tanks, eh.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: It was a huge number, they looked at them, you wondered, that they are so tall, and so on. And eh, amongst most were also Negroes.
  • David Boder: Negroes were there?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. Amongst the first drivers. And they came into the camp there and gave us chocolate and everything to eat, and we soon had everything we wanted. But the political, the prisoners, the older ones, that had more strength, took pincers that were isolated with rubber and they kicked open the barbed wire, ripped it open and soon cut through the wires.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And, so nothing can happen. They let out with guns, they brought the SS men, who were still behind the camp, between the country road and camp, into the camp. They hung them up afterwards and shot them, into the Bunker and they beat them, eh. They took a little bit of revenge. You can't say the entire revenge, because they did more to us, they took our parents away and everything. It was only a small revenge, you have to say.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Afterwards, eh, by chance . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] And that's why they hanged the SS?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes of course.
  • David Boder: Who did it?
  • Wolf Nehrich: The prisoners.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: So we did it.
  • David Boder: Did the political prisoners let it happen?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, they, but we were all only political prisoners, we had to.
  • David Boder: Yes. Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: And eh, back then, on the same day we were liberated on the 11th of April, somebody comes in, into our block, it was block 66, a youth block. And we didn't know, surely an American . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] A Youth block?
  • Wolf Nehrich: A Youth Block, yes.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: An American with a helmet, of the tanks, well eh, yes. He told us, he was a Jew, he was a rabbi, his name was Rabbi Schächter from New York, from Brooklyn.
  • David Boder: Rabbi Schächter from Brooklyn?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Rabbi Schächter from Brooklyn, yes. And at that time we were so happy. He said a few words to us, so it was a little relieve of the heart, that we, that it had been a Jewish American who put us out of our misery, here from this, with an army. And he told us, you know, that we, somebody, eh he would look after us and so on. So afterwards we were taken over into another, eh already not in the camp anymore. All youths were . . .
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: . . . moved to a ca-, SS caserne. Where the SS had been earlier, we lived afterwards. Because, eh the barracks were filthy, were many different.
  • David Boder: You moved into the SS casernes?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. Into the SS casernes.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And so we already lived a little better, a bit more normal, because were all roughened back then. And we knew to make very much of happiness of the liberation. You jumped, you became crazy from happiness. And eh, at first we got a great deal from the Americans, you know, we the Germans from the town, from the Germans, they had to deliver various meats and eh butter various things. And everybody, they all . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] Was all that there?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Of course, there was economy, you know, entire fields and cows everything. So they had to deliver everything to Buchenwald. And only a part contingent they could afford. We came into the caserns afterwards . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] A part of what?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Of the contingent, you know, what they had to deliver, they were afraid [unintelligible word] came into the casernes afterwards. The Rabbi Schächter did not leave us alone anymore, he incessantly got us everything, came every day with the taxi and spoke to us various things and brought various things, whatever you needed, clothes and all the different things. And provided a lot of things. Afterwards they took [unintelligible word]. Three more months we stayed in Buchenwald after the liberation.
  • David Boder: [interrupts Nehrich] Three more months in Buchenwald?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Yes, but you already lived freely?
  • Wolf Nehrich: [speaks unintelligibly, simultaneously with Boder]
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, we were, were entirely free, you couldn't say free any more, already too free you were.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: You could take revenge on the Germans. You could catch SS men, you drove around a little in the American jeeps into the villages, and we, where we only suspected someone, and we soon took him with us and sat him into the bunker. We hanged quite a few, we caught the "Rapportführer" of Buchenwald, we hanged him.
  • David Boder: Who did you catch?
  • Wolf Nehrich: The "Rapportführer" of Buchenwald.
  • David Boder: Who was he?
  • Wolf Nehrich: He was the one, who did the roll call every day [unintelligible sentence part].
  • David Boder: [speaks over Nehrich] Was he a prisoner?
  • Wolf Nehrich: No, a SS man.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Wolf Nehrich: It is . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] Where did you catch him?
  • Wolf Nehrich: We got him in a camp, in Weimar.
  • David Boder: He was hung in Buchenwald?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Did the Americans let this happen?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Of course.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And the Americans themselves couldn't do these things, because during the shootings they had, they were too soft, they always said.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: [Unintelligible sentence beginning] to do that. They always said, you do it, we don't want to see. But amongst these there were many Jews, who hated more intensely. So that . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] Amongst whom?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Amongst the Americans there were some Jews. So they hated more intensely. So they had, because they knew, that the Germans mostly only killed the Jews. So they took revenge. Most of them.
  • David Boder: Mhm.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Well, we also were, back then we also went into the villages. We did a lot and various things to the Germans. And then came a time, when we, we had to, we organized a transport together with Rabbi Schächter. A transport of Jews that should go to Switzerland. And we all left, 53 youths, we came to Switzerland. Switzerland for recreation. I came with them. And the Rabbi Schächter was the transport ehm leader of this train. We drove for about four days. Friday evening on the journey through Germany the Rabbi Schächter eh, eh . . .
  • David Boder: prayed?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, prayed with us, you know. It was very nice, the journey and so on. It was spring. You had to [unintelligible word] a little, after all the, after all the worries [orig.: "Zores"], as you say. And we arrived in Switzerland.
  • David Boder: They brought you to Switzerland?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. With the, with the train.
  • David Boder: Yes. For what purpose?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Recreation
  • David Boder: For recreation.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. It was only for three months. Because for three months . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] Yes. Switzerland let you in?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, for three months. We arrived, some of us, Switzerland let us in for recreation.
  • David Boder: Who then?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Swiss Red Cross.
  • David Boder: Yes
  • Wolf Nehrich: The next three months. Well, three months, where should we go afterwards?
  • David Boder: How many got in?
  • Wolf Nehrich: 350.
  • David Boder: And Schächter came too?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Schächter came too, but afterwards he had to leave soon.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: We said goodbye to him. The farewell was very nice of course. We were very sad that he eh left us. We wanted to stay with him still and that, but he wasn't allowed to stay, of course. He had responsibilities, so he had, because he was military and that.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: He had to go to his army after all. So eh, he went away and he organized other transports again, that went to Palestine and so on. So some also went to France, stayed there, because we drove through France. Afterwards we were, we should stay for three months, but we didn't have return tickets yet, back home nobody eh nobody wanted to go.
  • David Boder: Why?
  • Wolf Nehrich: It, of course the anti-Semitism and various things, in Poland for example what was going on, what had been going on and still today.
  • David Boder: Well? Yes?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Nobody wanted to go back. So, then we stayed further in Switzerland, and we learned different, different professions.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: For example the ORT made us eh, made, we got to know, there was an ORT school, which is very good, vocational school. You can learn different courses.
  • David Boder: And the Swiss allowed you to stay?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. It was all taken care of by some kind of refugee aid organization and so on, so that you stayed, until we had an opportunity to leave. Many of us, eh, most, best part want to go to Palestine. Yet others want to go to America, had relatives there. Just not back home.
  • David Boder: I see. Tell me, have you heard from you parents?
  • Wolf Nehrich: I only heard from me parents in the year 43. Once they sent me greetings.
  • David Boder: Well?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Nothing at all apart from that.
  • David Boder: Where were they in the 43rd year?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Then they were still in Będzin, where I was taken away. Afterwards they were moved.
  • David Boder: How do you know this?
  • Wolf Nehrich: I have eh, now found a brother after the liberation.
  • David Boder: Where?
  • Wolf Nehrich: A brother found me by chance. He was eh, hidden the whole time in a village as [unintelligible sentence end]
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: He still is. And eh, as eh non Jewish he worked there, they didn't know, you know, he is Jewish and various things, and then he found me on a list and sent me a telegram.
  • David Boder: Where from?
  • Wolf Nehrich: A list. I was on a liberation list from Buchenwald. So he got to know, I . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] But where was he? In Poland?
  • Wolf Nehrich: In Poland, yes.
  • David Boder: And he found you on the list?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. And then he got to know I was in Switzerland.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And he sent me a telegram, you know. Of course we were very happy. Because from persecuted two should remain
  • David Boder: Did he . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: [interrupts] And he wrote to me afterwards, why he got away and why the parents were moved and when, and so on. I also had the older brother, he writes, he wrote, the older brother was hidden in a, in such a village, a small town with a group of Jewish youths, and a Pole gave them away, and they were all shot.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: My brother.
  • David Boder: And where is your brother now?
  • Wolf Nehrich: The younger brother now is in Germany. He was in a kind of kibbutz, wanting to go to Palestine. He was in kibbutz in Poland, it is, was in Germany in the American zone, Landsberg, and now he is back in, in the French Zone. Here at the Swiss border. I'm now trying . . .
  • David Boder: to see him.
  • Wolf Nehrich: . . . when I can see him, yes. Because already five years have passed, [unintelligible sentence end].
  • David Boder: [speaks over Nehrich] Well, can he not come to Switzerland?
  • Wolf Nehrich: I'm trying, but at the moment it isn't possible. Switzerland, Switzerland doesn't want to let in, now.
  • David Boder: Yes. Tell me these things. You wrote down some things. Is there something else you want to tell me? Now have a look.
  • Wolf Nehrich: There is everything, eh. I have already said it through this.
  • David Boder: Yes, probably you have already said most of it.
  • Wolf Nehrich: I also don't speak German very well, because I, because I . . .
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: . . . am Polish, after all.
  • David Boder: When did you write it down?
  • Wolf Nehrich: I wrote it down already after the, after the liberation.
  • David Boder: But you wrote it down yourself, yes?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: What is this? When did you write this?
  • Wolf Nehrich: This? In, in, well, last year.
  • David Boder: One year ago you already . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: Well.
  • David Boder: . . . wrote this?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Read a bit.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Because, this is what I've already said once.
  • David Boder: Yes. Look, what does it look like, what shall it be like?
  • Wolf Nehrich: On the 26th of September 19. Well on the 26th of September 1945 I wrote it.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Short adventures of survival, short written adventures of survival in eleven concentration camps in four years. Wolf Nehrich, born on the 26th of December.
  • David Boder: Slowly.
  • Wolf Nehrich: 1928 in Debice [probably], Poland. I lived in Königshütte until the year 1939. On the 22nd of October 1939 I was moved with my family to Będzin.
  • David Boder: I see. And then, this is the same we have here.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Tell me, were there never any jokes told in concentration camps? One moment. [background noise]
  • Wolf Nehrich: Sorry?
  • David Boder: Were there never any jokes in concentration camps sometimes eh, stories, the like, you sometimes had a little fun?
  • Wolf Nehrich: No, you had, above all it was on your mind, simply, you were hungry, and you came from work very tired. [Unintelligible sentence]
  • David Boder: [speaks unintelligibly over Nehrich] A young man. Did you sometimes think about a girl or the likes?
  • Wolf Nehrich: That was never on my mind. Never.
  • David Boder: Why not?
  • Wolf Nehrich: How could these things be on your mind, when you, when you were hungry, you know. And you were week, you had work to do, because some looked to get through the day, because we survived the day. And you lie on the pallets, then you just said: or one day nearer to the liberation, or one day nearer to death. You didn't know which.
  • David Boder: And what did you think, what would it last. What, what . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: Who had courage conjured different fantasies, he survived. And who said, eh, because it was true, oh who can bear up here, you get nothing to eat, the hard work, he died soon simply because he thought this. But I always said, eh, I was born a Jew, I will be a Jew. And eh, we Jews are a suffering, you always must suffer, and I just hope, that eh, they will get us through. Indeed they brought us through.
  • David Boder: Tell me, eh, did you have any poems in the camp?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, we even had a Buchenwald song, we had. Maybe you have already heard it?
  • David Boder: How was it, can you sing it eh, slowly?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. I even wrote it down here. I know it by heart, too, but I.
  • David Boder: Yes, but [unintelligible word]. Read a little with the melody, yes?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Sorry?
  • David Boder: Eh, maybe sing it a little, so you can hear the words clearly, yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. Well, this is a song eh.
  • David Boder: [unintelligible sentence]
  • Wolf Nehrich: This is a song the camp commander of Buchenwald requested, that you should make a song and for it you would be given 100 cigarettes and eh, and eh, ten mark. But the 100 cigarettes you never saw of course.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: And neither the ten mark, you only had the song.
  • David Boder: But then, was the song eh, the way, the Germans would like it?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, the song was made, you know, a little like that, eh, because we thought, maybe they will not like it, but they let us sing it.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, sometimes we even have to sing it while bringing in the dead of the camp from the building site.
  • David Boder: I see.
  • Wolf Nehrich: into camp. You had to sing it, too.
  • David Boder: Sing now.
  • Wolf Nehrich: But the song goes like this, Buchenwald song: "When the day awakes . . . "
  • David Boder: [interrupts] Can you, sing it with the melody.
  • Wolf Nehrich: I have a bad voice today.
  • David Boder: [interrupts] No, no, no, not at all. Sing very softly, but clear words.
  • Wolf Nehrich: [sings] "When the day awakes before the sun is laughing. The columns march to their daily toils. Into the breaking day. And the forest is black and the heaven red, and the wind sings softly and I . . . "
  • David Boder: Read, read it.
  • Wolf Nehrich: [reads] "and I carry, and we carry in the backpack a little piece of bread, and in the heart, in the heart the worries. Oh, Buchenwald, I cannot forget you, because you are my destiny. Only those, who leave you can imagine how wonderful freedom is. But Buchenwald, we won't moan and lament, and whatever our future may be. We want to say yes to life nevertheless, because one time the day will come and we'll be free."
  • David Boder: And you were allowed to sing this?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: Go on.
  • Wolf Nehrich: I'd rather not sing it, because I don't have . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] Yes!
  • Wolf Nehrich: . . . a good voice.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: [reads] "And the night is short and the day so long, but a song sounds out, that home sung. We won't let them rob our courage. Keep marching, comrade, and don't lose the courage, because we carry the will to live in the blood, and in the heart, in the heart the faith. Oh, Buchenwald, I cannot forget you, because you are my destiny. Only those, who leave you can imagine how wonderful freedom is. But Buchenwald, we won't moan and lament, and whatever our future may be. We want to say yes to life nevertheless, because one time the day will come and we'll be free."
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: [reads] "And the blood is hot and the girl so far, and the wind sings softly, and I like her so much. Oh, if faithful, if faithful she would stay to me. And the stones are hard but, hard but strong, and the walk, and we carry pickaxes and spades with us. And in the heart, in the heart, the love. Oh, Buchenwald, I cannot forget you, because you are my destiny. Only those, who leave you can imagine how wonderful freedom is. But Buchenwald, we won't moan and lament, and whatever our future may be. We want to say yes to life nevertheless, because one time the day will come and we'll be free, free, free."
  • David Boder: Yes. And this they allowed to be sung?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. We even had to sing it.
  • David Boder: You had to.
  • Wolf Nehrich: When sometimes you didn't have the head for it, you had to sing it.
  • David Boder: Yes, Now tell me . . .
  • Wolf Nehrich: This is the Buchenwald emblem.
  • David Boder: Yes. This is supposed to be the Buchenwald sign? Triangle, was it Jewish or political?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Political.
  • David Boder: I see. And the Jews had the political [unintelligible word].
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. Political and additionally on top a yellow. That was [unintelligible word].
  • David Boder: Ah, above were yellow signs. Now tell me this: Eh, how, Eh,eh: What are you planning to do now?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Now, eh, I'm in the vocational school of the ORT, I'm learning carpentry. The vocational school is very good. You can learn the profession very well, maybe not so, eh, maybe nowhere as good as in this school. And afterwards, when I . . .
  • David Boder: [interrupts] Carpentry, then.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes, carpentry. Once I know the subject better, I don't know whether I will finish it completely, I hope yes, then I'll go to Palestine.
  • David Boder: Yes. Now tell me this: Eh, and what is this place in which you now live?
  • Wolf Nehrich: It is a youth center, you know, it is a religious center. The religious, those who want, want to be religious. Now they are here in this center, you know, just as in all the other centers
  • David Boder: And why did you decide to be relig-, religious? [Unintelligible sentence part] you were about twelve years old. Were your parents religious?
  • Wolf Nehrich: My parents were religious. And I have accepted that you have to be religious.
  • David Boder: When have you accepted this?
  • Wolf Nehrich: I saw it the whole, throughout the whole time, you know, I always, although I was in grave danger, the whole time I always believed in God, and I made it through, still believing in God.
  • David Boder: Did they allow the Jews to pray in the camp?
  • Wolf Nehrich: No, they didn't. You, sometimes you prayed, hid-, hidden away.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Wolf Nehrich: But it was forbidden. Strictly forbidden. If they found, caught someone, he got beaten with a stick afterwards.
  • David Boder: I see. So [unintelligible word] you didn't have?
  • Wolf Nehrich: No, not that.
  • David Boder: Did you have a prayer book?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Maybe somebody could have it sown, sown in, and could then have hidden it somewhere in the camp.
  • David Boder: I see. So, what, how did you pray?
  • Wolf Nehrich: By heart. However you could.
  • David Boder: I see. And, eh, did many know the Jewish prayers by heart? Did you know some?
  • Wolf Nehrich: [speaks over Boder] Those who knew, knew. Not everybody, not always did you pray. Sometimes, you recited the [unintelligible word] by heart, or sometimes the [unintelligible word, both probably Jewish prayers] and that was already something.
  • David Boder: I see. And why did you say, that eh things, eh, ok, Well, eh, so now you're planning to go to Palestine?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes.
  • David Boder: And your brother wants to go to Palestine.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. Together with the brother.
  • David Boder: How do you think, how will you get there?
  • Wolf Nehrich: Why. What, how, whatever possibility there is, that is how we'll go there.
  • David Boder: Well, this was very good Mr., eh, Nehrich. I am really glad I came over. And I think everything will be ok. And if I see the Rabbi Schächter I will send him greetings.
  • Wolf Nehrich: Yes. Great pleasure.
  • David Boder: [In English] This concludes the interview with Wolf Nehrich, eh, in Geneva, at, eh, August the 26th 1946. We curtail, that we finish that at, eh, the spool of 25 minutes. He has spoken one full spool and 25 minutes on the other. And that is about all. Eh, Illinois Institute of Technology recording.
  • Contributors to this text:
  • Transcription : Veronika Schmideder
  • English Translation : Veronika Schmideder