David P. Boder Interviews Bella Zgnilek; August 4, 1946; Paris, France

  • David Boder: [In English] This is Spool 22nd. I am interviewing Miss Bella Zgnilek, who lives here in the home for adults on Rue de Patin number 9. Today is Sunday, July 4th. Paris. Now, Bella . . . May I call you by your first name?
  • Bella Zgnilek: All right?
  • David Boder: All right, Bella. Tell me, what are you doing now in Paris? [This interview proceeds in English unless otherwise indicated.]
  • Bella Zgnilek: I am working now with the American Joint.
  • David Boder: Yes. Speak slower. You are working for the Joint Distribution Committee?
  • Bella Zgnilek: That's right.
  • David Boder: Yes. And what are you doing for them?
  • Bella Zgnilek: I am in bookkeeping for them.
  • David Boder: You are doing office work in the English language?
  • Bella Zgnilek: That's right.
  • David Boder: And where did you learn English?
  • Bella Zgnilek: In school.
  • David Boder: At school where?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Poland.
  • David Boder: In what city?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Sosnowiec.
  • David Boder: All right. Now, Bella, I want you to tell me right from the start what happened. Where were you when the Germans came to Poland? And then tell me what happened. Don't tell me much what happened to other people, just to you or your family. Go ahead.
  • Bella Zgnilek: In the beginni- . . . in the beginning, when the Germans came in—it was maybe two months after—my brother was out [word not clear] in the town [at] five minutes past seven, and the law was that we had to be on the street only till seven o'clock. The Germans picked him up and then shot him in the night.
  • David Boder: Your brother?
  • Bella Zgnilek: My brother.
  • David Boder: What for did they shoot him?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Because he . . . there was a law that they have to be . . . people have to be only on the street till si- . . . till seven o'clock.
  • David Boder: So it was for infringement of curfew.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: All right. Tell me, how large was your family? Who were your family?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Mother, brother, sister, brother-in-law, children.
  • David Boder: And where was your father?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Dead.
  • David Boder: Your father died.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Aha.
  • David Boder: How many children were you in your family, in your own?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Four. Four.
  • David Boder: Did you have older brothers and older sisters?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes. A married brother, married sister.
  • David Boder: Yes. And then did you have younger brothers and sisters?
  • Bella Zgnilek: A younger brother, two years older than me.
  • David Boder: An older brother . . . than you.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Older than me.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Bella Zgnilek: And he was shot.
  • David Boder: Yes. And you were the youngest in the family?
  • Bella Zgnilek: That's right.
  • David Boder: You were the youngest in the family. All right. We will now continue telling. Yes?
  • Bella Zgnilek: And after, my brother was sent to the camp, working.
  • David Boder: Which brother?
  • Bella Zgnilek: My oldest brother.
  • David Boder: The married brother.
  • Bella Zgnilek: The married brother. And he left his wife and his child home.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Oh, after a while, it was a . . . the German picked up all the Jews on one big place, and they made a segregation.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Bella Zgnilek: And young people they sent to concentration camp, and older people . . . [correction, pertaining to the young people] to working camps, and older people to Auschwitz.
  • David Boder: Yes. Tell me, how was that? How did they announce that all the Jews should come together? Was that what they called Aussiedlung [expulsion, deportation]?
  • Bella Zgnilek: That's right.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Then they issued an order that all the Jews assemble [?] in one place, and one day there [?] was the segregation. They took the young people to different camps, working camps, older people to Aussiedlung.
  • David Boder: To Auschwitz.
  • Bella Zgnilek: To Auschwitz.
  • David Boder: And what happened to those other people?
  • Bella Zgnilek: What happened to them? They were sent to gas and killed.
  • David Boder: How did you know that?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Because when I have been in the camp, I have been working there at the beginning . . .
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Bella Zgnilek: . . . after they sent us into a concentration camp. There were the SS women and a terrible [word not clear], but before, when we were in working camp, there came some girls, young girls, from Auschwitz also for work, and they told us everything.
  • David Boder: What did they tell you?
  • Bella Zgnilek: That they pick up people just from the train, because there are too many to send them to camp. So they pick them just from the train and send them to gas. They didn't tell them that they are sending to kill, but to the bath.
  • David Boder: Yes, to a bath. And then?
  • Bella Zgnilek: To a bath. And then they closed . . . shut all the doors, and they gassed them.
  • David Boder: Yes. And then?
  • Bella Zgnilek: And then?
  • David Boder: They . . .
  • Bella Zgnilek: So they killed all the Jews.
  • David Boder: Aha. There were only Jews among them. So, when you came together that . . . that morning to the . . . to the plaza, so what happened to your family then? Were you separated from your family?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: Who . . .
  • Bella Zgnilek: My sister, my brother-in-law with their [?] child, they were freed for the moment and sent back to the town. My mother was sent to Aussiedlung, and me they took to [the] working camp.
  • David Boder: Yes. Did you ever hear anything afterwards from your mother?
  • Bella Zgnilek: No, nothing. And my sister was sent to Aussiedlung, also to Auschwitz, in half a year later.
  • David Boder: Half a year later.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: Well, she was with your brother and their child. What happened . . .
  • Bella Zgnilek: My brother was sent also to the concentration camp before.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Before me. To a working camp. And I was sent later, after, together with my mother. But my mother to Auschwitz, and me to a camp. And my sister was for the moment free.
  • David Boder: All right. Now what do you know? What happened to your brother?
  • Bella Zgnilek: I don't know anything.
  • David Boder: You don't know anything. What happened to your sister?
  • Bella Zgnilek: I don't know.
  • David Boder: You don't know. Did you try to find them?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Oh, yes. I was in different committees and gave the name of [words not clear].
  • David Boder: Yes. But they are not . . .
  • Bella Zgnilek: I didn't get any news from anybody of them.
  • David Boder: All right. [Pause.] Now, and you were there.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Grossrosen outside detail.
  • David Boder: And what was that?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Hm. I have been working in the factory.
  • David Boder: In a factory.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Beginning.
  • David Boder: Yes. All right. Could you describe me a full day in [pause] . . . Go on. Tell me, what have you been doing? Describe the whole day. You have been working in a factory.
  • Bella Zgnilek: In a fac- . . . in the beginning I have been working in a factory, but as I talk and . . .
  • David Boder: Slower.
  • Bella Zgnilek: . . . as I talk and type German, they choose me for the office.
  • David Boder: Oh! You type and you talk German.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: Well, tell me, Bella, what kind of an education did you get, anyway?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Commercial school.
  • David Boder: Did you graduate from it?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: How old are you now?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Twenty-two.
  • David Boder: You are twenty-two. And when they . . . and when they took you, how old were you?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Eighteen.
  • David Boder: Eighteen. And you were through with the school?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Not quite through.
  • David Boder: Yes. But you were nearly through with . . .
  • Bella Zgnilek: Nearly.
  • David Boder: . . . through with the commercial school.
  • Bella Zgnilek: That's right.
  • David Boder: All right. So you knew how to type German, and they took you into the office.
  • Bella Zgnilek: That's right.
  • David Boder: All right. So tell me, how was it? In the morning, when did you get up?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Seven o'clock in the morning.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Bella Zgnilek: When I was working in the factory I had . . . I had to get up four o'clock in the morning.
  • David Boder: How would they wake you?
  • Bella Zgnilek: [In German] Oh, by the eldest of the Jews. He would say in German, 'Get up.'
  • David Boder: Get up. The eldest of the Jews would say that.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: Yes. Did you sleep women and men separately?
  • Bella Zgnilek: [In English] We have been all women.
  • David Boder: Only women in the barrack.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: All right. So at . . . you would get up at four o'clock in the morning. And then what would come . . .
  • Bella Zgnilek: And then I went to work.
  • David Boder: Well, would they count you before?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes. It was a Zaehlappell [count appell].
  • David Boder: A Zaehlappell.
  • Bella Zgnilek: They took out all . . . all to the court.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Bella Zgnilek: And they made a Zaehlappell.
  • David Boder: They counted. Did they . . .
  • Bella Zgnilek: They counted all of us.
  • David Boder: And suppose somebody wasn't there?
  • Bella Zgnilek: It never was in our camp.
  • David Boder: Why?
  • Bella Zgnilek: It would be very . . . very bad. They would kill different . . . other girls.
  • David Boder: Oh! They would kill other girls?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Of course.
  • David Boder: Did that happen?
  • Bella Zgnilek: In different camps, yes.
  • David Boder: But not in yours.
  • Bella Zgnilek: No, because everybody has been in the camp.
  • David Boder: Aha. All right. And then, after the Zaehlappell, would they give you something to eat?
  • Bella Zgnilek: No, not before . . . at four o' clock in the morning nothing, but at nine o'clock.
  • David Boder: At nine o'clock. Where? Where did you eat?
  • Bella Zgnilek: They brought some soup to the factory.
  • David Boder: They brought some soup to the factory. And did they stop working? Did they stop the machines?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes. For twenty minutes.
  • David Boder: And they would give you something . . .
  • Bella Zgnilek: It was different. Sometimes when the director was in a good mood, he stopped. If not, we had to eat and work.
  • David Boder: Aha. Yes. And what were you working . . . what [kind of] factory was it?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Flax yarn spinnery.
  • David Boder: Oh, flax yarn spinnery . . .
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: In what city was that?
  • Bella Zgnilek: In Gabersdorf.
  • David Boder: Gabersdorf.
  • Bella Zgnilek: A village.
  • David Boder: A village Gabersdorf. Flax yarn spinnery. You were spinning flax.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: What were they making there of that yarn?
  • Bella Zgnilek: For uniforms.
  • David Boder: For uniforms.
  • Bella Zgnilek: For soldier uniforms.
  • David Boder: All right. Then, how late would you work?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Twelve hours.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Bella Zgnilek: And after, fourteen hours.
  • David Boder: Fourteen hours a day.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: Would they bring you something to eat in between?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Twelve o'clock again soup.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Bella Zgnilek: And that was all.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Bella Zgnilek: But weekly we got some bread and some margarine.
  • David Boder: Some margarine. Now tell me this. What were you eating your soup with? Did you have your plates? Did you have your spoons?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Oh, we got just a plate and a spoon, yes.
  • David Boder: They gave it to you, or you had your own? What was it?
  • Bella Zgnilek: It was in the beginning that we got it from home.
  • David Boder: Aha.
  • Bella Zgnilek: And they didn't take it away from us. But they took away all our clothes.
  • David Boder: They took away your clothes.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: And what did they do with your clothes?
  • Bella Zgnilek: We had it from home brought. When we came to the camp we brought with us [our] clothes. But they took it away from us.
  • David Boder: Aha. All right.
  • Bella Zgnilek: They left us only two things.
  • David Boder: Yes? All right. You were through with work at what time in the evening?
  • Bella Zgnilek: It depends on the shift.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Sometimes twelve o'clock at night, sometimes four o'clock in the afternoon.
  • David Boder: You were in the morning shift?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Different. One week in one . . .
  • David Boder: The other week in the other.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Other.
  • David Boder: All right. So at four o'clock when you were through with your shift, what would you do then?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Oh, then we had other work. We had to dig [?] potatoes. We had to do . . .
  • David Boder: In the field?
  • Bella Zgnilek: In the cellar [?]. In the field.
  • David Boder: Yes? And?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Oh well, we had . . . and we had to take turns . . .
  • David Boder: What is that?
  • Bella Zgnilek: It was called du jour. To clean the barracks.
  • David Boder: To clean the barracks. Yes? And then what time did you . . . Did you have some books to read?
  • Bella Zgnilek: No.
  • David Boder: No.
  • Bella Zgnilek: We weren't allowed to.
  • David Boder: Were you allowed to get together to talk to each other, to sing?
  • Bella Zgnilek: It depends. If the SS Frau was in a very good mood, maybe sometimes yes. But the . . . I remember once we have been singing in our room, and then the SS Frau, she came to our room, and she said to me, 'Such noise,' and she started to [?] strike everybody, so that it never happened again.
  • David Boder: What did she strike you with? [Pause.] With the hand?
  • Bella Zgnilek: With the hand, yes.
  • David Boder: Where, in your face?
  • Bella Zgnilek: In [the] face.
  • David Boder: Yes. Now tell me this. Do you remember any of the songs that were made in the camp?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: Can you sing a song?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Oh,
  • David Boder: You can sing in a very low voice. The main thing we want, the words very clear. You understand? The melody does . . . just go on and try one. We will see how it comes out.
  • Bella Zgnilek: I'll just sing a little bit of the end.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Bella Zgnilek: This is the end, because before was [words not clear].
  • Bella Zgnilek: [Recites in German] Und die Deutschen, die verfluchten Schweine, / die bekommen noch von uns gebroch'ne Beine. / Und wir müssen selber sehn, / wie alle Deutschen schnell kaputt gehen.Translation: "And the damned German swines, / They will get their bones broken by us yet. / And we must see ourselves, / How the Germans go Kaput quickly."1
  • David Boder: [In English] Well, why don't you want to sing the first part?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Oh. [Words not clear] too much.
  • David Boder: Well, go ahead. Do it. Perhaps you can do it now. We want to preserve that material. We don't want that material lost. It is very important that we preserve that material. Start the first part. Just hum a little bit with the words. Go ahead.
  • Bella Zgnilek: [In German] Vor den Baracken in Gabersdorf / steht ein Gitter um den Hof / und die Mädels traurig wissen, / draußen tut die Freiheit glitzen. / Ade Sudentenland!Translation: "In front of the barracks in / Stands a barbed fence around the yard, / And the girls with sorrowful faces [or sit sorrowfully] / while outside freedom glitters. / Good-bye Sudetenland."2
  • David Boder: [In English] Bella will now recite the first and last verse of a poem that she has written in camp. The rest she will give me later in typed form, and we can preserve it together with the record. Go ahead.
  • Bella Zgnilek: [In Polish] Moje Miasto: [Tylko niektóre zdania są wyrażne] . . . piękny, majowy . . . płacze bolesne . . .pociąg . . . tam moji drodzy zostali . . . a miasto . . . oderwali . . . piękny, majowy . . . już przemineło . . . i tylko po nocach . . . to miasto mi się śni . . .Due to the audio quality of the reproduction, an accurate Polish transcription was not possible. Boder's English translation from reads: "My Town: I remember, the day was like any other, beautiful, May-like. / The sun was in its last rays. / [unintelligible] bitter cries. / [unintelligible] childhood games. / I remember with longing, sadly and with tears / and by night that town appears in my dreams."3
  • David Boder: [In English] Well, that was very good. Bella, you will give me the whole thing typed out in Polish and then a free English translation. Good? [Footnote: Unfortunately I did not obtain the promised material in written form. I may have left Paris without seeing her again. —D.P.B.]
  • Bella Zgnilek: All right.
  • David Boder: All right. Now tell me what happened then after the . . . you were through with . . . when you . . . from the factory work I understand you were transferred to office work.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: Now tell how things were going there.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Well, it was quite simple. It only was the good point that I didn't work so very hard, because the work in the factory was terrible and unhealthy. Most of the girls . . . they got ill, because it was dusty.
  • David Boder: All right. Now, in the office. Who were your chiefs? Who was over you? How were you working there? Were you working with Germans together?
  • Bella Zgnilek: [I was] not supposed to work with Germans together. And the chief was director of the factory.
  • David Boder: Yes? Well, how did they treat you?
  • Bella Zgnilek: The Germans in the factory when I walked [?] through—all was quite indifferent to them if I am going through or not.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Bella Zgnilek: But most mistreated [?] we have been by the SS women.
  • David Boder: What? By the SS women.
  • Bella Zgnilek: SS women.
  • David Boder: Yes? What were they doing there?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Striking for nothing, shaving our hair.
  • David Boder: Did they have your's shaved off?
  • Bella Zgnilek: [Pause.] Not quite, but I had shaved [cut] the hair very short.
  • David Boder: Aha. [Aside] she has now a nice head of black hair. All right. Nun . . . And how long did you work there, in the office?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Two years.
  • David Boder: You worked for two years there in the office.
  • Bella Zgnilek: That's right.
  • David Boder: Were you well all the time?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes. If I wouldn't have been working in the office maybe I wouldn't be alive any more, because the factory work would be too difficult for me.
  • David Boder: Yes. Did they pay anything for the work?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Nothing.
  • David Boder: Well, when you needed some things, soap, or . . . did you have toothpaste?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Oh, we didn't get anything from them. Just one little piece of soap, and we had to wash ourselves only with water.
  • David Boder: You washed yourself only with water.
  • Bella Zgnilek: And . . . Oh yes, we got one piece of soap, but that wasn't enough for the whole month.
  • David Boder: Aha. And how did you handle you laundry? Or did you wash your clothing?
  • Bella Zgnilek: [Giggles.] Everybody knows that in camp [it] wasn't so clean.
  • David Boder: The camp wasn't so clean. Did you have any insects there?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Hm.
  • David Boder: No? How did they manage . . . if the camp wasn't so clean, how did they manage to keep the insects away? Did you have lice?
  • Bella Zgnilek: It was some. We haven't been too many in one camp, so it wasn't . . . we haven't had so many lice as in camps where it was overcrowded. There was epidemic, too.
  • David Boder: Yes. Now tell me, so after the two years working in the office, what happened then?
  • Bella Zgnilek: I worked in the office till the liberation. Then came the Russians. They liberated us, and we were free.
  • David Boder: Oh! You worked until the liberation?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: And then . . . and you were freed. Tell me, how did you get to France?
  • Bella Zgnilek: We have been seven girls together . . .
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Bella Zgnilek: in camp. And we decided to come to France. We wanted to go to Palestine.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Bella Zgnilek: So we decided to come to France before, to get transportation.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Bella Zgnilek: And so we came . . . we managed to come to France. We tried to pass through the border.
  • David Boder: Which border, the Russian?
  • Bella Zgnilek: It was the German border.
  • David Boder: Yes?
  • Bella Zgnilek: The German border, Austrian border, and then the French.
  • David Boder: Yes.
  • Bella Zgnilek: And we came to French.
  • David Boder: You came to France. And how did you pay your passage?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Oh, we didn't pay for anything. We just came together with all people.
  • David Boder: Yes? And then?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Liberated people.
  • David Boder: Liberated people were what? Shipped . . . sent . . . shipped by the . . .
  • Bella Zgnilek: Sent by the government [word not clear].
  • David Boder: By railroad. You said that you wanted to go to France, and you went to France?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes. It was easy for us.
  • David Boder: Did you have to cross the border . . . what . . . you came . . .
  • Bella Zgnilek: With . . . with other French people we came together.
  • David Boder: Aha. Nun . . . and now what do you plan to do?
  • Bella Zgnilek: I am waiting for transportation. I have relatives in Canada. I have relatives in Argentina, but it is very difficult for me to get over, because . . .
  • David Boder: And [?] why?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Because [there is] no transportation. I am twenty-two, and transportation is only for children till sixteen.
  • David Boder: Oh! You mean a transporation permit to Argentina?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes. I am not permitted to enter the country.
  • David Boder: Argentina? Do you have relatives in Argentina?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Right.
  • David Boder: You told me you have relatives in Chicago. Who are they?
  • Bella Zgnilek: No. It is just a friend, a little girl friend.
  • David Boder: Aha. The other girl has her relatives there.
  • Bella Zgnilek: That's right.
  • David Boder: what is the name of your girl friend?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Goldie Birnbaum.
  • David Boder: Birnbaum.
  • Bella Zgnilek: Right.
  • David Boder: Was she with you in camp?
  • Bella Zgnilek: No, no, no. She is in the States for . . . from before the war.
  • David Boder: What did you say is her first name?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Goldie.
  • David Boder: Goldie Birnbaum. Do you know her address?
  • Bella Zgnilek: I have it written somewhere, but I have to look for it.
  • David Boder: Have you written to her?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: Did she reply?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: Did she send you some packages?
  • Bella Zgnilek: She did.
  • David Boder: Aha. And now you are working here in the office of the Joint?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes.
  • David Boder: And so that is what you are at present doing. All right, Bella, thank you very much. Can you ask your girl friend to come in?
  • Bella Zgnilek: I will.
  • David Boder: Was she with you in the same place all the time?
  • Bella Zgnilek: No, no. She hasn't been in a camp.
  • David Boder: No. Where was she?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Sorry, I can't tell you. I don't know. We know each other since [for] two weeks.
  • David Boder: All right. Will you ask her to come in?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Yes, I sure will.
  • David Boder: Thank you very much. Is there anything . . . is there anything you want to tell your own people in America from you? [Pause.] The microphone is yours. What do you think shall we tell them about all these . . . displaced people and deportees?
  • Bella Zgnilek: Well, I will just send them regards, and I am happy that not everybody of the Jews went through such a hell [?] as we did. [Pause.]
  • David Boder: Bella wants to add a few remarks in Polish. Go ahead, Bella.
  • Bella Zgnilek: [In Polish] [unintelligible]Due to the audio quality of the reproduction, an accurate Polish transcription was not possible. Boder's English translation from reads: "I would like to tell you, my friends, that all of us Jews ought to hate the Germans because of the wrongs which they did to us and our families, because they broke our hearts, broke our homes, and we ought never to forget that."4
  • David Boder: This was a kind of a postscript that I wanted to have, because it's exceedingly important to have the feelings of these young people. We notice here that she spoke in German, in English, in Polish, and when it came to express her feelings she preferred to express it in Polish. This polyglotism, or multilinguistics if we want to call it that way, represents a psychological and ethnic problem at the same time.
  1. Translation: "And the damned German swines, / They will get their bones broken by us yet. / And we must see ourselves, / How the Germans go Kaput quickly."
  2. Translation: "In front of the barracks in / Stands a barbed fence around the yard, / And the girls with sorrowful faces [or sit sorrowfully] / while outside freedom glitters. / Good-bye Sudetenland."
  3. Due to the audio quality of the reproduction, an accurate Polish transcription was not possible. Boder's English translation from reads: "My Town: I remember, the day was like any other, beautiful, May-like. / The sun was in its last rays. / [unintelligible] bitter cries. / [unintelligible] childhood games. / I remember with longing, sadly and with tears / and by night that town appears in my dreams."
  4. Due to the audio quality of the reproduction, an accurate Polish transcription was not possible. Boder's English translation from reads: "I would like to tell you, my friends, that all of us Jews ought to hate the Germans because of the wrongs which they did to us and our families, because they broke our hearts, broke our homes, and we ought never to forget that."
  • Contributors to this text:
  • Transcription (English) : David P. Boder
  • Transcription (German) : Dagmar Platt
  • Transcription (Polish) : Alicia Nitecki
  • English Translation : David P. Boder